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Safe and Effective Use of Essential Oil Pregnancy

Safe and Effective Use of Essential Oil Pregnancy

While research suggests there are health benefits, the FDA doesn’t monitor or regulate the purity or quality of essential oils. It’s important to talk with a healthcare professional before you begin using essential oils and be sure to research the quality of a brand’s products. Always do a patch test before trying a new essential oil. (please see more Things To Know Before Use Essential Oils).

Pregnancy period

When you’re navigating pregnancy, it can feel like all you hear is a constant stream of don’ts. Don’t eat lunch meats. Don’t consume too much fish for fear of mercury (but do incorporate healthy fish into your diet). Don’t scoop the kitty litter. (OK, we don’t mind that last one.)

With all that you have to avoid, it can make you nervous anytime you want to use a product of any kind.

So the question we’re looking at in this article is this: Do you need to worry about using essential oils during pregnancy? We’re breaking down the important details that you need to know to make an informed decision if you decide to incorporate essential oils into your pregnancy routine.

We’ll highlight best practices as well as outline which oils are safe — and which ones fall on, you guessed it, the don’t list.

Benefits of essential oils while pregnant

Let’s start by saying there’s not a wholesale ban on the use of essential oils while you’re pregnant. There’s evidence that some essential oils may provide therapeutic benefits that can reduce common pregnancy ailments as well as calm anxiety.

When used properly, certain essential oils may provide the following key benefits:

  • help minimize nausea and upset stomach.
  • soothe achy muscles.
  • help reduce irritation and swelling associated with hemorrhoids.
  • improve sleep.
  • improve skin elasticity.
  • reduce the appearance of stretch marks.
  • help reduce anxiety during labor.
Essential Oil Pregnancy

Safety of essential oils while pregnant

There’s a common concern that essential oils can metabolize into toxic compounds when absorbed through a pregnant person’s bloodstream. But experts have generally determined that when used in the right dosages, this isn’t an issue.

The key is sticking to recommended amounts and following all suggested guidelines (below!). Be sure to check in with your doctor with any questions or concerns.

Guidelines for using essential oils while pregnant

First off, avoid using essential oils during the first trimester. The first trimester is the most critical period during pregnancy, and any risk of exposing the fetus to a toxic substance should be avoided at all costs.

But in your second or third trimesters, keep the following safety protocols in mind when you’re using approved essential oils.

Don’t ingest essential oils

Even if you aren’t pregnant, essential oils aren’t meant to be taken orally unless under the direct supervision of an expert or physician. Many essential oils can pose toxicity risks when ingested — for you and, potentially, your baby.

Focus on aromatherapy

In general, most medical experts agree that aromatherapy is a safer option for pregnant people as opposed to topical applications. This simply means that you should use your essential oils in a diffuser rather than applying them to your skin.

Dilution is key

Regardless of whether you’re pregnant or not, if you do decide to use oils topically, you’ll need what’s known as a carrier oil to do so safely. This is because essential oils are very concentrated and can irritate skin when applied directly without being diluted.

Common carrier oils include:

  • jojoba oil
  • coconut oil
  • sweet almond oil
  • apricot oil

Pregnant people should always speak with their physician or homeopathic expert before attempting to use them topically.

Don’t exceed dosage recommendations

While there aren’t any studies showing that normal use of essential oils is dangerous, exceeding the recommended dosages can be — especially if you’re using them topically. Carefully dilute the oils.

Uses essential oil pregnancy that are safe

Lavender essential oil

Of all the essential oils, lavender is one of the most well-researched and promoted options that’s also widely available for pregnant people to use. Studies, including this one from 2016, have shown that when used properly, lavender is an excellent aromatherapy treatment that encourages relaxation, especially during labor and delivery — a stressful moment.

Lavender essential oil

A 2018 review of studies even boldly concluded that lavender reduces labor pain.

Bring a portable diffuser with you to the hospital and add a few drops of pure lavender oil to set a relaxing mood. Avoid inhaling the steam directly from your diffuser though as this can irritate the mucous membranes in your nose.

You might also ask your labor partner to massage you with diluted lavender oil during labor.

Rose essential oil

Rose oil is another great option for reducing anxiety, encouraging calm, and helping you get those coveted 40 winks at night. Similar to lavender, one 2014 studyTrusted Source suggests rose oil can help ease anxiety during delivery. More research still needs to be done to confirm these positive results.

Since most people like the smell of roses, this might be a great option if you’re not a fan of how lavender smells. This oil is good for aromatherapy uses and should be added to a diffuser.

Peppermint essential oil

This is a controversial one. Many experts — including aromatherapy and homeopathic practitioners — avoid the use of peppermint oil on pregnant people entirely.

Peppermint Essential Oil

But preliminary evidence from an older 2013 study suggests that when used solely for aromatherapy, peppermint oil can be a great option for reducing nausea in pregnant people.

Chamomile essential oil

Most people know that a cup of chamomile tea can be very calming. But chamomile is also an essential oil.

It turns out that there are two types of chamomile, each of which serves a different purpose.

Chamomile essential oil

Roman chamomile is a great aromatherapy option to help encourage relaxation and banish severe migraine attacks, according to a 2014 study. But German chamomile can be used topically with a carrier oil after you give birth to help repair the skin’s elasticity and reduce the appearance of stretch marks.

Lemon essential oil

Lemon oil is another great option if you’re dealing with nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. A 2014 study in pregnant woman showed that, when used consistently in aromatherapy, lemon oil reduced the frequency of nausea and vomiting.

Geranium essential oil

There’s no shortage of anti-anxiety aromatherapy options for labor and delivery. If lavender and rose oil aren’t your things, geranium oil is another floral option with a proven clinical track record of reducing anxiety during the first stage of labor.

Geranium essential oil

Other essential oils

Additional essential oils that have therapeutic benefits and are safe for pregnancy (after the first trimester) include:

  • bitter almond
  • argan
  • patchouli
  • pomegranate
  • ginger
  • cardamom
  • fennel
  • cypress
  • myrtle essential
  • frankincense/agarwood
Agarwood (Oud) Essential Oil

Oils to avoid during pregnancy

The list of oils to avoid is significantly larger than those that are safe for use during pregnancy. But as a whole, it’s because these oils lack sufficient testing and research to prove that they’re safe for use while you’re pregnant, even when taken according to dosage recommendations.

Like we mentioned earlier, the concern with many of these essential oils is that if a pregnant person takes more than the recommended amount, there’s a toxicity risk:

  • aniseed
  • sage
  • basil
  • wormwood
  • rue
  • mugwort
  • oak mass
  • tarragon
  • birch
  • hyssop
  • camphor
  • parsley
  • pennyroyal
  • tansy
  • thuja
  • wintergreen

The takeaway

Essential oils may be a smart option for reducing some common pregnancy symptoms — like nausea — without the need for medication. They’re also a great way to help naturally reduce anxiety during labor when used as part of an aromatherapy strategy.

You should always use oils according to the recommended amounts, and work with a certified aromatherapist or your physician before you begin an essential oil-based therapeutic regimen when you’re pregnant.

Wish you always healthy and happy in life.

  • This article is for reference only and to share experiences, and is not a substitute for medical diagnosis or treatment.
  • sources: THE COMPLETE BOOK OF ESSENTIAL OILS & AROMATHERAPY – Valerie Ann Worwood & Essential Oil Natural Remedies – ALTHEA PRESS

Please see more: Using Essential Oils For Nail Care; Body Packs And Scrubs


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How to Use Base Oil, Carrier Oil

What are carrier oils (base oils)?

Carrier oils and essential oils are made from plants. Carrier oils are used to dilute essential oils and “carry” them to your skin. That’s because essential oils are potent and can cause irritation when applied directly to your skin.

Most carrier oils are unscented or lightly scented and don’t interfere with an essential oil’s therapeutic properties. They may be used alone or with other oils to nourish your skin.

Keep reading to learn more about choosing the right carrier oil, some of the different carrier oils available, and more.

How to select the carrier oil you need

There are many carrier oils available. Most are suitable to use with any essential oil, but you should consider a few things before choosing one.

  • Odor: A few carrier oils have a distinct odor. When added to an essential oil, it may alter the aroma.
  • Absorption: Your skin can absorb some carrier oils better than others.
  • Skin type: Depending on your skin type, some oils may irritate skin or worsen a skin condition such as acne.
  • Shelf life: Some carrier oils can be stored for longer periods than others without going bad.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration doesn’t regulate carrier oils labeled for use as cosmetics. They do, however, regulate edible cooking oils that may serve double-duty as carrier oils.

You should only buy therapeutic-grade carrier oils from a manufacturer you trust. Look for oils that are cold-pressed, 100 percent pure, and additive- or preservative-free. If you want to use a cooking oil as a carrier oil, choose cold-pressed, organic varieties.

The following list includes popular carrier oils used to dilute essential oils for aromatherapy, massage, and skin care. The list isn’t exhaustive, but it’s a good place to start.

1. Coconut oil

Coconut oil is an edible oil made from the meat of mature coconuts. It’s available in refined or unrefined varieties.

Coconut oil

Unrefined coconut oil comes from fresh coconut meat. It’s not processed with chemicals and retains its coconut aroma and flavor.

Refined coconut oil comes from dried coconut meat, also called copra. It’s bleached and deodorized to remove contaminants, as well as the distinct coconut aroma and flavor. Refined coconut isn’t all-natural and isn’t recommended for use as a carrier oil.

Uses: Coconut oil contains skin-nourishing fatty acids and polyphenols, which make it a great carrier oil for massage oils and skin care preparations.

2. Jojoba oil

Jojoba oil comes from the seeds of the jojoba plant. It has a delicate, nutty aroma. Technically, jojoba isn’t an oil, but a wax with powerful moisturizing properties. It’s thought to closely mimic sebum, the skin’s natural oil.

Jojoba oil

Using jojoba oil may help reduce the skin’s oil production in acne-prone people by making the skin think it’s produced enough oil.

Uses: Jojoba oil absorbs easily in the skin and doesn’t clog pores. This makes it a good carrier oil option for massage oils, facial moisturizers, and bath oils.

3. Apricot kernel oil

Apricot kernel oil is made from apricot seeds, also known as kernels. It’s an emollient oil high in fatty acids and vitamin E. It absorbs easily into the skin and has a slightly sweet, nutty scent. You can buy edible apricot kernel oil, or apricot kernel oil for cosmetic use only.

Apricot kernel oil

Uses: Apricot kernel oil is thought to help soften and calm irritated, itchy skin. Use it as a carrier oil to make massage oils, bath oil, and hair care preparations.

4. Sweet almond oil

Sweet almond oil has a strong, nutty aroma. It’s an edible oil made from the kernels of sweet almonds. The oil is lightweight and absorbs easily, and is a great moisturizer for dry skin.

Sweet almond oil

It’s also used in general aromatherapy, but its strong scent may mask an essential oil’s aroma.

Uses: Sweet almond oil is one of the most popular carrier oils for skin care. It’s great in massage oils, bath oils, and soaps.

5. Olive oil

Olive oil comes from pressed olives. It’s best known as a healthy, edible oil with a fruity aroma, but it’s also used in aromatherapy as a carrier oil.

Extra-virgin olive oil is the preferred variety for aromatherapy and skin care preparations. Olive oil’s scent may interfere with the scent of some essential oils.

Olive oil

Uses: It’s packed with fatty acids and plant sterols, which make it great for cleansing and moisturizing dry skin. Use olive oil as a carrier oil for massage, facial cleansers, hair care, and homemade soaps.

6. Argan oil

Argan oil is made from kernels found inside the fruit of argan trees, which are native to Morocco. The oil is edible and is traditionally used to nourish the body inside and out. It has a nutty aroma and is rich in vitamins A and E, and monounsaturated fatty acids.

Uses: Argan oil can help treat dry skin and hair, wrinkles, and skin inflammation. This makes it a terrific carrier oil for general skin care and massage oils.

7. Rosehip oil

Rosehips are the seeds of the Rosa rubiginosa bush or the Rosa moschata bush. The flowers of both bushes look different from traditional roses. When these flowers die and drop their petals, the rosehip is left behind. Rosehip oil is pressed from rosehips.

Rosehip oil

Rosehip oil doesn’t smell like a rose, though. It has a nutty, earthy scent.

Uses: Rosehip oil is high in vitamins A and C. Vitamin A is a natural retinoid that helps fight aging, and both vitamins can help reverse the effects of the sun on your skin. Use it as a carrier oil for dry skin remedies, massage oils, and moisturizers.

8. Black seed oil

Black seed oil is made from the Nigella sativa plant. Although it’s lesser known than other carrier oils, it’s richTrusted Source with unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. It’s also thought to have anti-inflammatory abilities.

Uses: Black seed oil is often used as a folk remedy to soothe skin conditions including eczema, acne, and psoriasis. With this in mind, it’s a great choice for facial care, massage oils, and general skin care.

9. Grape seed oil

Grape seed oil comes from grape seeds. It’s a byproduct of the winemaking process. It’s rich in vitamin E, a nutrient thought to heal the skin and reduce wrinkles, although scientific research is inconsistent.

Uses: Grape seed oil is lightweight, easily absorbed by the skin, and has a neutral scent. It’s a good carrier oil to use with essential oils to make body oils and massage oils.

10. Avocado oil

Avocado oil is a heavy, thick, edible oil made from avocado fruit. It has a nutty aroma.

Avocado oil

Avocado oil is high in oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid thought to help dry, damaged skin.

Uses: This can be a good carrier oil for dry skin remedies and body creams — unless you’re dealing with acne. Avocado oil may increase sebum production, so if your skin is acne-prone, check with your dermatologist before use.

11. Sunflower oil

Sunflower oil is an edible oil extracted from sunflower seeds. It has a neutral odor. The oil is said to act as a skin barrier against toxins and germs that cause infection, making it a great choice for irritated skin.

Sunflower oil

Uses: It’s thought to help soften skin, moisturize skin, and soothe irritation, so add this carrier oil to your massage oils or use for general skin care.

How to mix carrier oil with essential oils

Whenever possible, purchase organic, cold-pressed carrier oils from a manufacturer you trust. Although most carrier oils don’t cause an allergic reaction, you should always do a patch test prior to using.

To perform a patch test:

  • Add a small amount of carrier oil to the inside of your wrist or just below your ear.
  • Cover the oil with a bandage.
  • Check back on the area after 24 hours.
  • If irritation occurs, rinse thoroughly, and avoid future use.

If you’re allergic to tree nuts, you shouldn’t use oils derived from tree nuts. This includes sweet almond oil, argan oil, and apricot kernel oil.

When diluting essential oils with a carrier oil, it’s important to follow these dilution guidelines.

For adults:

  • 2.5 percent dilution: 15 drops essential oil per 6 teaspoons carrier oil
  • 3 percent dilution: 20 drops essential oil per 6 teaspoons carrier oil
  • 5 percent dilution: 30 drops essential oil per 6 teaspoons carrier oil
  • 10 percent dilution: 60 drops essential oil per 6 teaspoons carrier oil

For children:

  • 0.5 to 1 percent dilution: 3 to 6 drops essential oil per 6 teaspoons carrier oil

Always store carrier oils in a cool, dark place, preferably in the refrigerator. You should also keep them in a dark glass bottle.

The bottom line

Carrier oils make it possible to use essential oils safely. They also help nourish and moisturize your skin. Not all oils make good carrier oils, though. You should avoid using things like butter, petroleum jelly, and mineral oil.

Whatever oil you choose, avoid using it on your lips, eyes, or other sensitive areas after it’s been mixed with an essential oil. However, you can safely apply carrier oil alone to these areas.

Carrier Oil

Please see more: Things To Know Before Use Essential Oils; Warning: Somes Essential Oils Limited Use

Wish you always healthy and happy in life.

    • The article is for reference only and to share experiences, not a substitute for medical diagnosis or treatment.
    • Sources:
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Things to Know Before Use Essential Oils


A Safety depends on several factors

As the use essential oil market continues to grow, so do concerns about whether these highly concentrated plant extracts are safe for common use. Many consumers are unaware of the potential risks while using essential oils in their wellness, beauty, and cleaning routines.

Whether a specific oil is safe for you depends on a number of factors, including your:

  • Age
  • Underlying health conditions
  • Medication and supplement use

When it comes to the oil, it’s important to consider:

  • Chemical composition and purity
  • Method of use
  • Duration of use
  • Dosage

Read on to learn how to safely use each method, which oils to try and which to avoid, what to do if you experience side effects, and more.

Safety guidelines for topical use essential oils

Many people turn to topical oils for their skin-healing or pain-relievingTrusted Source properties. However, if administered improperly, rash and other side effects may occur.

Some essential oils can even be poisonous if absorbed directly through the skin. Others, like orange, lime, and lemon, can cause phototoxicity if applied before exposure to sun.


Essential oils require dilution to prevent adverse reactions. As a general rule, you should keep concentration levels of essential oils below 5 percent. (

Diluting at 1 percent is equivalent to adding 6 drops of essential oil to 1 ounce of carrier oil. Guidelines for safe concentrations vary by age and health condition.

You can easily dilute your essential oils by blending a few drops with a carrier oil. Carrier oils are typically vegetable-based: Coconut oil, Jojoba oil, Apricot kernel oil, Sweet almond oil.. They carry the essential oil safely onto your skin and help you spread it over a large surface area.

Patch test

Patch tests allow you to see how your skin reacts to a particular oil before you perform a full application.

Here are the steps for conducting a patch test:

  1. Wash your forearm with unscented soap.
  2. Pat dry.
  3. Rub a few drops of diluted essential oil into a small patch of your forearm.
  4. Wait 24 hours.
  5. Remove the gauze.

If the skin patch is red, itchy, blistering, or swollen, you have had an adverse reaction to the oil and should discontinue use.
If you experience discomfort before the 24-hour period ends, immediately wash the area with soap and warm water.


Popular essential oils that can be used with or without dilution (neat application):

  • Chamomile
  • Cypress
  • Eucalyptus
  • Lavender
  • Tea tree (unoxidized)
  • Rose
  • Sandalwood

Neat applications should be done under professional supervision.

Popular use essential oils that must be diluted:

  • Bay
  • Cinnamon bark or leaf
  • Clove bud
  • Citronella
  • Cumin
  • Lemongrass
  • Lemon verbena
  • Oregano
  • Thyme

Vegetable oil (Base Oil) or carrier oil

Vegetable oils as a base for dilution with essential oils can be:

  • Almond oil
  • Apricot Kernel Oil
  • Avocado Oil
  • Sunflower oil
  • PCT
  • Grape Seed Oil
  • Evening Primrose Oil
  • Olive Oil
  • Sachi Oil
  • Jojoba Oil
Vegetable oil (Base Oil) or carrier oil

Safety guidelines for internal use essential oils

Essential oils aren’t consistently regulated.

You shouldn’t use essential oils internally unless you’ve undergone advanced training and certification or are acting under the guidance of a trained professional.

Avoid oral ingestion and internal application, such as in the mouth, vagina, or other mucus membranes.

Safety guidelines for aromatherapy

The benefits of aromatherapy are well-researched. Inhaling certain essential oils, like sweet orange, can help ease symptoms of stress and anxiety. Inhaling lavender may improve sleep qualityTrusted Source.

You can reap the benefits of aromatherapy through inhalation or diffusion. Inhalation is most effective when treating respiratory issues, whereas diffusion is best suited for mood management.

When diffusing oils, use these safety precautions:

  • Follow proper dilution guidelines.
  • Make sure you diffuse in a well-ventilated area.
  • Diffuse intermittently, typically 30 to 60 minutes on, then 30 to 60 minutes off.
diffusing oils

Essential Oils

Popular essential oils that can be diffused without any potential risks to children or pets:

  • cedarwood
  • fir
  • grapefruit
  • lavender
  • lemon
  • spearmint
  • tangerine

Popular essential oils that should be diffused with caution, because they’re mucous membrane irritants:

  • bay
  • cinnamon bark or leaf
  • clove bud or leaf
  • lemongrass
  • peppermint
  • thyme

Can you use essential oils during pregnancy?

This is a highly controversial practice — especially during the first three months.

Some people worry that topical essential oils can cross the placental barrier and harm the fetus.

While there are some essential oils that should never be used during pregnancy, there are a few that are considered safe for use during prenatal massages or through the diffuser method.

According to one studyTrusted Source, some essential oils may be effective in reducing anxiety and fear regarding childbirth.

If you’re interested in using essential oils during pregnancy, talk to your healthcare provider and midwife before use.

Popular essential oils that should never be used during pregnancy, labor, or while breastfeeding:

  • camphor
  • parsley seed
  • hyssop
  • pennyroyal
  • tarragon
  • wintergreen
  • wormwood

Please see more :

Can you use essential oils for infants and children?

This is another highly controversial topic. Infants and children have thinner skin and less developed livers and immune systems. This makes them more vulnerable to potential toxicity associated with oil use.

Following safety guidelines and exercising extreme caution is crucial. You should always consult a healthcare provider before using essential oils on or around infants and children.

After 2 years, certain essential oils can be administered topically and through aromatherapy methods, but at a much weaker concentration than adult dosing. A safe dilution ratio is typically 0.5 to 2.5 percent.

Other examples of safety guidelines for children regarding essential oils:

  • Peppermint shouldn’t be topically applied to or diffused around children under the age of 6 years.
  • Eucalyptus shouldn’t be topically applied to or diffused around children under the age of 10 years.

Remember, diluting at 1 percent is equivalent to adding 6 drops of essential oil to 1 ounce of carrier oil.

Infants and children (or adults) shouldn’t ingest essential oils. As a safety precaution, essential oils should always be kept out of reach.

Essential oils are limited (may not) for use by children

A 2007 study reported that using lavender and tea tree oil topically on males who have not reached puberty has been linked to hormonal abnormalities that encourage breast growth. These oils should only be administered through aromatherapy methods or avoided.

Talk to a medical provider before using these essential oils on or around children.

Popular essential oils that should never be used on or around infants and children:

  • eucalyptus
  • fennel
  • peppermint
  • rosemary
  • verbena
  • wintergreen

General side effects and risks associated with popular essential oils

There is still much we don’t know about the long-term effects of aromatherapy. Possible long-term effects need to be considered and studied before the use of popular oils becomes a main stream practice in Western medicine. There are dangers.

Here are a few examples:

  • Anise: When used internally, anise lowers the antidepressant effects of some medications and increases the effects of drugs that affect the central nervous system.
  • Bergamot: This oil can cause skin sensitivity and result in burning if applied in a high topical concentration before sunlight exposure.
  • Cinnamon: If applied without diluting or ingested, this oil can cause mucus membrane irritation, contact dermatitis, facial flushing, double vision, nausea, and vomiting.
  • Eucalyptus: If swallowed, this oil can cause seizures.
  • Lavender: Topical application has been shown to affect hormones in males who have not reached puberty.
  • Lemon verbena: If topically applied before sun exposure, this oil can cause photosensitivity and may result in burning.
  • Nutmeg: This oil may cause a rash or a burn if applied topically. It can also cause hallucinations and even coma when ingested in high concentrations.
  • Peppermint: This oil can causeTrusted Source rash and other irritations when applied to skin. It can also cause heartburn if taken internally.
  • Sage: If a large amount is ingested, this oil can causeTrusted Source restlessness, vomiting, vertigo, rapid heart rate, tremors, seizures, and kidney damage.
  • Tea tree: When applied topically, this oil can causeTrusted Source rash or irritation. If swallowed, it can cause loss of muscle coordination and confusion. Ingestion may also affect hormones in males who have not reached puberty

Things to consider before use essential oils

Essential oils are natural, but that doesn’t mean they can be used without taking precautions. Before using any essential oil, you should ask yourself — and be able to answer — the following questions:

What method do you want to use?

The method you use is based upon the desired effect. Are you looking for mood-altering effects (aromatherapy)? Are you looking to treat a skin ailment or relieve pain (topical)? Or, are you looking to treat a medical condition (oral or aromatherapy)?

Does the oil need to be diluted?

Most essential oils, unless they are considered “neat,” need to be diluted. Always check the dilution guidelines.

Does the oil increase photosensitivity?

In general, citrus essential oils increase photosensitivity. Applying them before sun exposure can cause serious skin burns.

Does the oil have any clinical interactions?

Some essential oils, absorbed into the body through aromatherapy, can cause an adverse reaction when used with other medications or supplements. They may also trigger or worsen symptoms of an underlying medical condition.

Is the oil safe to use around infants, children, or pets?

Always check whether a specific essential oil is safe for children and pets. Keep in mind that what might be safe for dogs may be poisonous for cats. Cats are more sensitive to essential oils than other pets. Avoid using aromatherapy in public.

Is the oil safe to ingest?

Essential oils that are perfectly safe when used topically or in aromatherapy may be toxic when ingested. Certain oils, like wintergreen, can be deadly.

General precautions to take

In general, you should treat essential oils like other medications, supplements, or harmful materials. This means practicing caution when purchasing, storing, and using them.

Keep essential oils out of reach of children and pets

It’s not enough to keep your essential oils out of view. In order to ensure safety, place all essential oils in a lockable case and store them in a cupboard out of reach. Alternatively, store them in a high-up cabinet and add a child lock.

When diffusing, don’t exceed 30- to 60-minute intervals

With essential oils, less is often more. Exceeding the ideal times doesn’t amplify the oil’s benefits. In fact, it can actually create stress on your body, especially the nervous system.

Only diffuse in well-ventilated areas

As a general rule, if all you can smell is the essential oil, your area is not well-ventilated. In such cases, you risk irritating your respiratory system.

Ventilation is especially important in the presence of pets — and it includes leaving doors open for pets to remove themselves.

When in doubt, dilute the oil

When using topically, carrier oils shouldn’t be overlooked. Not only are they useful in spreading the essential oil onto a larger surface area, they protect your skin from rash and irritation.

Never use photosensitizing oils before UV exposure

Safety guidelines recommend waiting a full 24 hours after using photosensitizing oils before visiting a tanning booth or spending time in direct sunlight.

Always wash your hands after use essential oils

If you have remnants of essential oils on your hands and you rub your eyes or scratch the inside of your ears, you could experience a serious adverse reaction. Essential oils shouldn’t come into contact with eyes and ears.

Keep all essential oils away from flames

Essential oils are highly flammable. They shouldn’t be used or stored near candles, gas stoves, lit cigarettes, or open fireplaces.

What to do if side effects occur

Practicing caution and following safety guidelines will help ensure your experience using essential oils is a positive one. However, adverse reactions can still happen. Part of responsibly using essential oils is knowing what to do if side effects do occur.

In most cases, minor side effects can be taken care of at home.

  • If essential oils get into your eyes, you can do one of two things: Soak a cotton swab in a food-grade fatty oil like sesame or olive. Wipe the swab over your closed eyelid.
  • Immediately flush the area with cool, clean water.

If you’re experiencing skin irritation: Use a fatty oil or cream to absorb and wipe the essential oil away.

If you’ve accidently ingested or over-ingested an oil, immediately contact your local poison control center. Then, follow these precautions:

  • drink full-fat or 2 percent milk
  • avoid vomiting
  • keep the essential oil bottle handy to show the emergency response team

Wish you always healthy and happy in life.

    • The article is for reference only and to share experiences, not a substitute for medical diagnosis or treatment.
    • Sources:
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Body Packs and Scrubs

Body Scrubs packs are like face packs in that they remove impurities and improve the texture of the skin while providing a good toning treatment. Some body packs can also be slimming. They are used a great deal in European spa resorts where you can get plas- tered in herbal packs made of mud, clay, or seaweed.

But body scrubs packs are very easy to do at home and essential oils are the perfect ingredient to use, not only because of their therapeutic values but because their aromatic qualities make lying around like a basted chicken a far more enjoyable experience!

When the waiting is done and you can wash the pack off, you and your body will both feel great. If you are feeling a bit neglected and depressed, go the whole way with a body pack and essential oil bath followed by an essential oil massage. You’ll feel one hundred percent better and your bank manager, if he knew it, would be much happier than if you’d gone off to Switzerland for a bit of pampering.

Clay is wonderfully absorbent and seems to act as a magnet to all the toxins and debris lurking in our skins. Cover the place you intend to lie down on with plastic– two split black trash can liners work perfectly well. Mix about 7 ounces of green or white clay (kaolin) with enough water to make a paste that’s not too stiff but resembles in consistency that of yogurt.

In another dish add 10 drops of essential oil to the yolk of an egg and mix well. Use lemon to remove impurities, lavender to relax, or rosemary for stimulation. Now mix this well into the clay pack and carefully smooth it all over your body. Leave it on for fifteen minutes, then sponge off with tepid water. Soak yourself now in an essential oil bath and follow with a massage oil.

Ground, dried seaweed or algae can be bought already in powder form and makes a good alternative to the clay. Like the clay, it is also valuable in treating muscular or joint conditions. Just substitute this for the clay and follow the directions as above.

Body scrubs are designed to slough off dead skin cells, thus allowing the new skin to be exposed and giving the skin an improved texture and color. Again, they are very easy to do at home. Any ground nut or pulse can be used as the basic ingredient although lentils mixed with coarse oatmeal make an excellent base.

Grind a handful of brown lentils in a blender or by pestle and mortar and then add a handful of coarse oatmeal and blend again until you have a powder. Add 4 drops of grapefruit and 4 drops of carrot essential oil and blend until you have a paste. Rub this all over the skin, paying particular attention to dry, scaling areas such as elbows, knees, and the backs of heels. Rinse off in the shower or bath and then use body oil. Here are some other body scrubs:


  • Ground almond 1 handful
  • Oatmeal 1 handful
  • Sandalwood 2 drops
  • Evening primrose 2 drops


  • Aduki beans 1 handful
  • Oatmeal 1 handful
  • Rosemary 2 drops
  • Lavender 2 drops


  • Ground almonds 1 handful
  • Oatmeal 1 handful
  • Thyme linalol 2 drops
  • Lemon 2 drops

The Harem Specia

One of the most luxurious and sensual body preparations comes to us from the East where, reputedly, it was used when women in the harem were prepared for the sultan’s pleasure. It removes dead skin cells and leaves the skin glowing, fragrant, and as soft as silk:

  • Ground, dried citrus fruit peel 1 teaspoon
  • Ground almonds 3 teaspoons
  • Oatmeal 2 teaspoons
  • Clove powder 1 pinch
  • Crushed, dried rose petals 1 teaspoon
  • Nutmeg powder 1 pinch
  • Almond oil 2 tablespoons
  • Neroli (or a citrus oil, Lemon or Orange) 2 drops
  • Sandalwood (or Patchouli) 2 drops

Blend all the ingredients together until you have a paste. Add more almond oil if you feel it needs it.

Have a bath, dry yourself off and, standing in the bath, roll the mixture all over your body. Massage it into dry areas of skin. The idea is to cover the skin with a very fine layer, which is why you need to roll the paste over the body. (This is a technique we don’t know or use very much in the West but which is employed, for example, in Morocco when making very thin pastry–the ball of dough is slapped on to a hot place so that just the thinnest layer of dough is left on its surface).

By the time you have finished rolling the paste all over your body you’ll be ready to go back to the part of the body you started with and brush the fine dust off. Gently wipe any remaining areas of paste with a dry washcloth.


Wish you always healthy and happy in life.

  • This article is for reference only and to share experiences, and is not a substitute for medical diagnosis or treatment.

Please see more: Facial Skin Care With Herbal Essential Oils; SKINEROIL – SKIN CARE ESSENTIAL OIL

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Benefits of Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz Tea

What’s Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz Tea?

Bo Chinh ginseng also has other names such as Trentian ginseng, Leopard ginseng, and Phu Yen ginseng. The scientific name of ginseng is Abelmoschus sagittifolius (Kurz) Merr. Other names are Hibiscus sagittifolius Kurz, Hibiscus abelmoschus L. This plant family is Malvaceae.

Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz

Describe the Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz ginseng tree

Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz is a herbaceous plant. The tree grows in the form of a bush, sometimes leaning against the surrounding trees, about 1m high or more. Roots are pale yellowish white. There are many large roots in the shape of a person that look a lot like ginseng. So people have called Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz ginseng root.

The main leaves of Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz ginseng are staggered, with long stalks. Leaves at the base are oval without sawing, the middle and apical leaves are 5 lobes strip-shaped, petioles shorter than the blades, hairy.

Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz grows naturally in Vietnam. In the central mountainous areas (Binh Thuan, Phu Yen, Quang Ngai, Quang Nam, Nghe An, Ha Tinh.). And a few other places in the North. Currently, due to indiscriminate exploitation, Ginseng Bo Chinh is gradually becoming extinct. Since then, some places have propagated and replanted the raw material garden of Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz Ginseng.

Due to its many nutritional benefits for the body, Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz ginseng plant is listed by Oriental Medicine as a plant in the ginseng family. In addition to processing all kinds of ginseng, ginseng soaked in alcohol, dishes from ginseng. In addition, with pure fragrance and contains many nutritious substances. The flowers of Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz plant are also used to make the Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz tea.

Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz Roots

Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz ginseng is a precious ginseng, second only to Ngoc Linh ginseng, and not inferior to Korean ginseng. Big, long ginseng root has many very rich and beautiful shapes.

Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz Roots

Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz Ginseng has a light sweet taste, has mucilage, is average; has the effect of cooling, laxative, nourishing the mind, generating new fluids; With rice, it warms and nourishes the spleen, helps digestion, and adds strength. In China, people consider the roots and leaves as having the effect of sounding heat and burning poison.

Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz Tea

Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz Tea can be processed in 3 ways:

  • The first method is to use only ginseng flowers, ginseng leaves and main ginseng stems.
  • The second way is to combine the main parts of the ginseng plant with green tea, stevia and some other ingredients.
  • The third way is to use fresh ginseng root with ginger to make tea.
Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz Flowers

Why’s we use Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz Tea

  • Rich in omega, 10-20g of powder or fresh a day will cure insomnia.
  • Saponins help fight cancer and strengthen the body’s immune system.
  • Phytosterols help regulate blood pressure.
  • There are 3 types of omega 3, 6, 9 that help strengthen the cardiovascular, respiratory, and vision enhancement.
  • Contains calcium (0.56%) and iron (0.0056%) to help strengthen bones and grow well.

Ingredients: The Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz ginseng tea contains 19 kinds of amino acids:

  • Glycine (0.16%): This acid helps the body to digest well, supports nerves, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging. Improve the skin of middle-aged women.
  • Histidine (0.093%): people with high intensity work will help sedation, easy to sleep. Improve sexual dysfunction in men and women.
  • Lysine (0.212%): For patients who have just had surgery, or have weak health, this acid helps the body quickly recover and regenerate cells.
  • Taurine (0.194%): acts on the nervous system, helps to stay awake.
  • Alanine (0.203%): participates in the metabolism of sugar in the body.
  • Arginine (0.698%): This acid has an effect on the liver, helping to balance the amount of ammonia in the blood, promoting the synthesis of substances and stabilizing liver function.
  • Aspartic acid (1.954%): This acid helps convert starch into sugar and helps to increase muscle mass. Limit the amount of ammonia in the body after each exercise session.
  • Sum of Cystine and Cysteine ​​(0.058%): helps improve tissue strength, strengthens white blood cells.
  • Cysteine ​​helps detoxify, limiting the harmful effects of alcohol and tobacco.
  • Glutamic acid (0.419%): helps users stabilize nervous disorders, liver disorders.
    Methionine (0.054%): prevent fatty liver, enhance male hormone.
  • Phenylalanine (0.107%): helps reduce depression, affects the brain, produces vitamin D, enhances memory.
  • Proline (0.388%): helps strengthen tissues, beneficial for the heart.
  • Threonine (0.147%): helps form collagen and elastin (substance that helps bind tissues). Boosts immunity and promotes nutrients.
  • Valine (0.170%): improve insomnia, anorexia.

The main ingredients of Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz Tea.

  • Special Grade: Flower (50%), Ginseng Root (10%), Green Tea (10%), stevia (20%), trunk (10%)
  • Grade 1: consists of 80% main ginseng stem, leaves and flowers, 10% green tea, 5% stevia, 5% wilted flowers.
  • Grade 2: Consists of 90% dried main ginseng root, 10% dried ginger
  • Grade 3: has 100% of the main ginseng roots, leaves, flowers, stems, fruits, and seeds.

How to Uses?

  • Use 100ml boiling water and 30g Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz tea. Then 5 minutes later can use.
  • Tea can be served with ice.
  • Store in the refrigerator for repeated use.

The benefits of Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz tea

    • Prevent cancer.
    • Sedative, easy to sleep.
    • Skin beauty, anti-aging.
    • Body purification.
    • Restore health, heal wounds quickly.
    • Blood circulation, prevention of anemia.
    • Good for the immune system.
    • Lower the cholesterol.
    • Good for male and female activities.
    • Brighten eyes, good memory.


BIOREMAKE’s Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz Plantation

Provide materials from Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz (Bo Chinh) Ginseng to make Tea, Soak Wine. And instructions on how to process products from Abelmoschus Sagittifolius Kurz Ginseng.

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The Biosynthesis Pathways of Agarwood Constituents

The Biosynthesis Pathways of Agarwood Constituents

Agarwood formation can be related to the self-defense mechanism of Aquilaria trees in response to biotic and abiotic stresses (Gao et al., 2012b; Singh and Sharma, 2015). Stresses trigger the defense responses of Aquilaria species which in turn initiate the secondary metabolite biosynthesis and the accumulation of agarwood resin, forming of Agarwood Constituents.

Previously, we have mentioned that sesquiterpenes and PEC derivatives are the main constituents in agarwood. Hence, it is crucially important to understand the metabolic pathway for the regulation and biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes and chromone derivatives in Aquilaria species to effectively induce the agarwood formation.

In plants, the isoprenoid precursors for the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes, triterpenes and sterols has generally been assumed to be provided from the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway in cytosol. In plastids, the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) or known as methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway provides precursors for the production of monoterpenes, diterpenes, and carotenoids (Rohmer, 1999; Dong et al., 2015; Singh and Sharma, 2015).

These two pathways biosynthesise C5 homoallylic isoprenoid precursor, that is isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and its electrophilic allylic isomer dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP). An exchange of IPP and DMAPP was observed to happen in between plastids and cytosol even with the spatial partitioning of the two pathways (Dong et al., 2015).

The production of IPP and DMAPP precursors from pyruvate and acetyl-CoA involves a series of enzymes according to the respective pathway (Figure 4). The genes encode for these enzymes have been identified from Aquilaria species through transcriptome sequencing analysis (Xu et al., 2013; Ye et al., 2016).

These C5 isoprene units will later be channeled into the generation of C15 farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) by sequential condensation reactions in the presence of FPP synthase (FPS) (Rohmer, 1999; Yang et al., 2013; Ye et al., 2016). The FPS is one of the key-limiting enzymes responsible for the sesquiterpene biosynthesis (Gaffe et al., 2000; Yang et al., 2013; Liu X. al., 2017).

The genes encode for FPS have been cloned from Aquilaria microcarpa (Am-FaPS-1) (Kenmotsu et al., 2011) and Aquilaria sinensis (AsFPS1) (Yang et al., 2013). The transcript level of AsFPS1 was reported to be higher in stem and roots than the leaves, suggesting that sesquiterpene synthesis in Aquilaria species tends to be tissue-specific. Besides, the expression of Am-FaPS-1 was shown to be up-regulated upon exposure to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), yeast extract and Ca2+-ionophore A23187, indicating that the two former chemicals are effective to initiate the sesquiterpene biosynthesis pathway whereas Ca2+ can act as signaling molecule during the activation process (Kenmotsu et al., 2011). This provides clues for the artificial induction of agarwood formation via exogenous chemically induced approaches by triggering the sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway in Aquilaria trees.


Schematic relationships between the wound-induced signal transduction mechanisms for the sesquiterpene biosynthesis and regulation in Aquilaria species for the agarwood production. External stimuli trigger the Ca2+ signaling pathway and induce the defense responses of Aquilaria species via hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) pathway, ethylene (ET) signals, Jasmonic acid (JA) signals, and salicylic acid (SA) signals.

MeJA treatment triggers H2O2 production that can induce programmed cell death (PCD) and increase the sesquiterpene synthesis. These signaling molecules activate the transcription factors such as MYB, MYC, and WRKY, which will bind to the cis-element on the promoter of terpenes biosynthesis genes in the mevalonic acid (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways and also the downstream terpene synthase genes (TPs). Direct and indirect interactions are shown as solid and dotted lines, respectively. AACT, acetyl-CoA C-acetyl transferase; HMGS, hydroxymethylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA synthase; HMGR, HMG-CoA reductase; MK, mevalonate kinase; MPK, phosphomevalonate kinase; MDD, mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase; DXP, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate; DXS, DXP synthase; DXR, DXP reductoisomerase; CMK, 4-(cytidine 50-diphospho)-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol kinase; MCS, 2-C-methyl-D-D-erythritol-2,4-cyclo diphosphate synthase; HDS, (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate synthase; IDS, isopentenyl diphosphate synthase; GPS, geranyl disphosphate synthase; GGPS, geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase.

In the final stage of sesquiterpenes production, the enzymes accountable for the diversification of sesquiterpene mainly come from the classes of sesquiterpene synthases (SesTPs) and cytochrome P450 dependent mono-oxygenases (P450s). The SesTP enzymes are responsible to catalyze the formation of multicyclic scaffold complexes from FPP, followed by oxidative functionalization of the resulting scaffolds by cytochrome P450 enzymes. The added hydroxyl groups by P450s can serve as molecular handles for further modifications, such as alkylations, esterifications and the addition of sugar residues ().

In addition, the P450 enzymes which carry out stereospecific hydroxylation on the hydrocarbon backbones, that is important for the novel chiralities and further modifications of the sesquiterpene molecules, have never been reported from Aquilaria species thus far. Similarly, the NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Aquilaria that act as redox partners of P450s catalysis activity are basically unexplored. Several studies have been reported to isolate genes encode for SesTPs from Aquilaria, which can be considered as the early attempts to study SesTPs involved in the agarwood formation (; ).

Structure of cytochrome P450

In the study of , five genes encode for sesquiterpene synthases which shared highly similar amino acid sequences have been isolated from Aquilaria crassna. Three out of these genes have been successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and enzymatically converted FPP into δ-guaiene as their major product. Besides, three other sesquiterpene synthase genes (ASS1, ASS2, and ASS3) identified from A. sinensis via transcriptome sequencing have been revealed to encode enzymes that produce δ-guaiene as well (). The isolation of SesTP genes was also described in A. malaccensis where the temporal and spatial expression of the two SesTPs reported in the study, i.e., the guaiene (AmGuaiS1) and sesquiterpene synthase (AmSesTPS1), was elucidated ().

The AmSesTPS1 was found to be highly expressed after 6 h of wounding while AmGuaiS1 was induced after 2 h of wounding at a magnitude of 18- and 5.5-fold higher than unwounded control, respectively. Recently, a novel sesquiterpene synthase gene (As-sesTPS) was isolated from A. sinensis where the recombinant As-sesTPS catalyzed FPP into nerolidol (). Expression analysis showed that the transcript level of As-sesTPS was much higher in agarwood than the healthy wood, implying that the gene can be participated in the agarwood formation. Despite the fact that many sesquiterpene compounds have been discovered from the agarwood, the corresponding SesTPs responsible for their production have yet to be reported from Aquilaria. For that reason, the sesquiterpene biosynthesis pathways involve in the functionalization of terpenes in Aquilaria is urged for further clarification.

On the other hand, chromones are a large group of secondary metabolites with wide-ranging potential therapeutic indications toward immunomodulation, inflammation, cancer, diabetes, neurological conditions, bacterial and viral infections (; ; ). Chromone is derived from a polycyclic organic compound namely benzopyran ring, with a keto group substitution on its oxime ring. It is generally believed that derivations of chromones take place as a consequence of the convergence of multiple secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways involving pentaketide pathway, shikimic acid pathway and the addition of nitrogenous moiety from amino acids or other sources (). Owing to the extensive pharmacological properties associated with its bicyclic ring structure, chromones have been used as the privileged scaffold in the development of new drugs ().

The PECs are small class of chromones, which hold a phenylethyl substituent at the C2 of benzopyran ring of the chromone that happened to be structurally unique in the family (). Until now, the PECs have only been found to be present in a few species of plants for example Bothriochloa ischaemum (), Imperata cylindrical (), Cucumis melo L. (), Gyrinops salicifolia (), and Aquilaria species (; ). Recently, a hypothetical scheme for the biosynthetic pathway of PECs was proposed by based on in-dept analysis of agarwood chemical constituents using GC-EL-MS and UPLC-ESI-MS/MS methods.

In their study, the PECs was found to be the major agarwood resin constituents, which is comprised mostly of flindersia-type 2-(2-phenylethyl) chromones (FTPECs). The formation of FTPECs is further elucidated to be possibly catalyzed by type III polyketide synthase (PKs) through condensation of dihydro-cinnamoyl-CoA analogs and malonyl-CoA with 2-hydroxy-benzoyl-CoA to produce PEC scaffold that will subsequently be catalyzed by hydroxylases or O-methyltransferases (OMTs) to form structurally diverse FTPECs (). Recent study showed that salinity stress could induce the biosynthesis of PECs in A. sinensis calli (). Transcriptomic analysis of these salt-induced A. sinensis calli have identified several upregulated candidate genes potentially involved in the biosynthesis of PECs, including three OMT-encoding genes (flavonol-OMT 1, flavonol-3-OMT and caffeoyl-CoA-OMT) and a type III polyketide synthase gene encodes for chalcone synthase 1 (AsCHS1).

In spite of the recent progress made on the understandings of PECs biosynthesis, a tremendous effort is necessary to experimentally determine the missing steps in this complex PEC biosynthetic pathway. Even with the inadequate knowledge on the detailed PEC biosynthetic pathway, artificial synthesis of chromones and some of its derivatives is nevertheless feasible due to the advancement of chemical processes (; ). Agarwood is a rich source of PEC derivatives which deserves further investigation to uncover the structure of new chromone compounds and improve the understanding toward its biosynthetic mechanism at the molecular level.

Signaling and Regulation Mechanism of Agarwood Formation

In nature, the probability of getting agarwood-containing Aquilaria trees are extremely low (1–2%), where can only be found on pathogenically infected or wounded trees (Cui et al., 2013; Chhipa and Kaushik, 2017). Therefore, it is sensible to assume that there is a wound-inducible signal transduction process causing the expression of sesquiterpene synthases prior to agarwood formation. In order to clarify the relationship of wound signal transduction and regulation of agarwood formation, high-throughput studies on agarwood formation have recently gained attention in researches (Table 2). A schematic diagram of the proposed signal transduction mechanism of sesquiterpene biosynthesis and regulation in Aquilaria species is provided in Figure 4.

2012 Identification of conserved and novel microRNAs in Aquilaria sinensis based on small RNA sequencing and transcriptome sequence data Gao Z. H., Wei J. H., Yang Y., Zhang Z., Zhao W. T. (2012b). Selection and validation of reference genes for studying stress-related agarwood formation of Aquilaria sinensis. Plant Cell Rep. 31 1759–1768. 10.1007/s00299-012-1289-x. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]


2013 Identification of genes related to agarwood formation: transcriptome analysis of healthy and wounded tissues of A. sinensis Xu Y., Zhang Z., Wang M., Wei J., Chen H., Gao Z., et al. (2013). Identification of genes related to agarwood formation: transcriptome analysis of healthy and wounded tissues of Aquilaria sinensis. BMC Genomics 14:227. 10.1186/1471-2164-14-227. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
2014 Profiling of microRNAs under wound treatment in A. sinensis to identify possible microRNAs involved in agarwood formation Gao Z. H., Yang Y., Zhang Z., Zhao W. T., Meng H., Jin Y., et al. (2014). Profiling of microRNAs under wound treatment in Aquilaria sinensis to identify possible microRNAs involved in agarwood formation. Int. J. Biol. Sci. 10 500–510. 10.7150/ijbs.8065. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
2015 Hydrogen peroxide promotes programmed cell death and salicylic acid accumulation during the induced production of sesquiterpenes in cultured cell suspensions of A. sinensis Liu J., Xu Y., Zhang Z., Wei J. (2015). Hydrogen peroxide promotes programmed cell death and salicylic acid accumulation during the induced production of sesquiterpenes in cultured cell suspensions of Aquilaria sinensis. Funct. Plant Biol. 42 337–346. 10.1071/FP14189. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
2015 Cloning, expression and characterization of COI1 gene (AsCOI1) from A. sinensis (Lour.) Gilg Liao Y., Wei J., Xu Y., Zhang Z. (2015). Cloning, expression and characterization of COI1 gene (AsCOI1) from Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. Acta. Pharm. Sin. B. 5 473–481. 10.1016/j.apsb.2015.05.009. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Ref list]
2016 Transcriptome sequencing of chemically induced A. sinensis to identify genes related to agarwood formation Ye W., Wu H., He X., Wang L., Zhang W., Li H., et al. (2016). Transcriptome sequencing of chemically induced Aquilaria sinensis to identify genes related to agarwood formation. PLoS One 11:e0155505. 10.1371/journal.pone.0155505. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
2016 Jasmonic acid is a crucial signal transducer in heat shock induced sesquiterpene formation in A. sinensis Xu Y. -H., Liao Y. -C., Zhang Z., Liu J., Sun P. -W., Gao Z. -H., et al. (2016). Jasmonic acid is a crucial signal transducer in heat shock induced sesquiterpene formation in Aquilaria sinensis. Sci. Rep. 6:21843. 10.1038/srep21843 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
2016 Salinity stress induces the production of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones and regulates novel classes of responsive genes involved in signal transduction in A. sinensis calli Wang X., Gao B., Liu X., Dong X., Zhang Z., Fan H., et al. (2016). Salinity stress induces the production of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones and regulates novel classes of responsive genes involved in signal transduction in Aquilaria sinensis calli. BMC Plant Biol. 16:119. 10.1186/s12870-016-0803-7. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
2017 Transcription factor AsMYC2 controls the jasmonate-responsive expression of ASS1 regulating sesquiterpene biosynthesis in A, sinensis (Lour.) Gilg Xu C., Liu R., Zhang Q., Chen X., Qian Y., Fang W. (2017). The diversification of evolutionarily conserved MAPK cascades correlates with the evolution of fungal species and development of lifestyles. Genome Biol. Evol. 9 311–322. 10.1093/gbe/evw051. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway has been proposed as wound-induced signaling mechanism for the agarwood formation in A. sinensis, which phosphorylates downstream transcription factors (TFs) like MYB or WRKY that eventually lead to the expression of sesquiterpene synthase genes (ASSs) (Xu et al., 2013). The MAPK signaling cascade consists of three sequentially activated components [MAPK kinase kinases (MAPKKKs), MAPK kinases (MAPKKs), and MAPKs], which is highly conserved signaling mechanism in eukaryotes in mediating extracellular signals to downstream responsive genes (Sinha et al., 2011; Xu C. et al., 2017). Xu et al. (2013) has reported that a total of 41 unigenes from the transcriptome analysis of wounded A. sinensis are annotated as being related to MAPK signaling pathway and 25 to calcium signaling pathways which may play roles in wound-induced agarwood formation.

In plants, calcium ions (Ca2+) are important intracellular secondary messenger molecules to regulate many signal transduction pathways reacting to the external stimuli (Tuteja and Mahajan, 2007). Earlier studies in other plants have shown that TFs are crucial regulators in stress-responsive signaling pathways to transmit signals to different cellular centers to activate plant adaptation/defense mechanisms against adverse environments, including TFs like bZIP, ERF, EIN3, MYB, MYC, and WRKY (Ambawat et al., 2013; Phukan et al., 2016; Schmiesing et al., 2016). Overexpression of AaWRKY1 in Artemisia annua was found to have positively regulated the expression of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase gene (ADS) and significantly increased the production of artemisinin (Ma et al., 2009). The expression of cotton TF GaWRKY was also shown to upregulate the sesquiterpene synthase genes for the biosynthesis of (+)-δ-cadinene and gossypol sesquiterpene (Xu et al., 2004).

Besides mechanical wounding, the MeJA is an effective elicitor to increase the sesquiterpenes content in Aquilaria (Xu et al., 2013, 2016; Xu Y. H. et al., 2017). Previous studies have shown that heat shock can increase the expression of genes involved in the Jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis, including allene oxide cyclase (AOC), allene oxide synthase (AOS), lipoxygenase (LOX) and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase 3 (OPR3) genes, which subsequently lead to the production of JA and the accumulation of sesquiterpene in the A. sinensis suspension cell culture (Xu et al., 2016). The A. sinensis coronatine-insensitive protein 1 (AsCOI1), acts as a receptor in MeJA signaling pathway, has been cloned and characterized (Liao et al., 2015). Expression study of AsCOI1 has demonstrated that the gene was expressed in a tissue-specific pattern which is highest in stem, followed by root and leaves.

The findings imply that resin production due to external stimuli may be more responsive in stem of Aquilaria. The AsCOI1 gene is responsive toward early treatment of MeJA, mechanical wounding and heat stress. The application of MeJA in A. sinensis has increased the expression level of 17 wound signaling-related genes, including TFs WRKY4 and MYB4, protein kinases CAPKs, MAPKs and MAPKK, NADPH oxidase noxB and some regulators related to signal molecules MeJA, ethylene and hydrogen peroxide (Xu et al., 2013). Interestingly, the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) producing NADPH oxidase noxB was found to be significantly up-regulated by the MeJA treatment (Xu et al., 2013; Gong et al., 2017), which is consistent with the findings that MeJA triggers H2O2 production in plants (Orozco-Cardenas et al., 2001; Hung et al., 2006). A study on suspension cultures of A. sinensis revealed that H2O2 can induce the programmed cell death (PCD) and sesquiterpene synthesis by the elevated expression of ASS genes due to the endogenous accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) (Liu et al., 2015).

Meanwhile, the expression of jasmonate-responsive key sesquiterpene synthase ASS1 in A. sinensis was described to be regulated by a TF AsMYC2 (Xu Y. H. et al., 2017). As an immediate-early responsive gene toward MeJA treatment, AsMYC2 binds to the ASS1 promoter containing a G-box motif to initiate the expression of ASS1. Similarly, the homolog of AsMYC2 in Arabidopsis (MYC2) was shown to be MeJA-responsive and up-regulated the expression of two sesquiterpene synthases (TPS11 and TPS21) upon treatment (Hong et al., 2012). In addition, MeJA treatment has successfully induced the synthesis of 3 sesquiterpenes, that are α-guaiene, α-humulene and δ-guaiene in A. crassna cell culture (Ito et al., 2005; Kumeta and Ito, 2010).

In contrary to the sesquiterpene biosynthesis pathway, the biosynthesis and regulation of PECs remains almost unknown. In the study of Wang et al. (2016), forty-one PECs have been produced in A. sinensis calli by salt treatment. With the help of high-throughput transcriptome analysis, a total of 18,069 differentially expressed transcripts between the control and the NaCl-treated A. sinensis calli induced by 24 or 120 h salinity stress were obtained. Many differentially expressed genes are reported to be involved in the hormone signal transduction; including genes encode for MAPK cascades, receptor-like kinases, Ca2+ signal transduction and transcription factors (Wang et al., 2016).

Nonetheless, the pace of research did not just stop at searching for effective inducers and their underlying signal transduction process, but also extended to their post-transcriptional regulation mechanism. By deep sequencing of sRNAs from healthy control and wounded samples of A. sinensis, Gao et al. (2012a) have identified ten stress-responsive miRNAs from 74 putative conserved miRNAs and their hairpin forming precursors were also confirmed. Expression pattern revealed that six of these stress-responsive miRNAs were up-regulated, including miR159, miR168, miR171, miR396, miR397, and miR408, whereas miR160 and miR398 were down-regulated and continued their reduced level at 2 day point (Gao et al., 2012a). The different responses of miRNAs reacted toward treatment and the effect lasted for various time lengths reflecting the diversity of their positions in the post-transcriptional regulation of wound response in A. sinensis. Among the identified miRNAs, the down-regulated miR398 is of interest where it was demonstrated to negatively regulate the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered callose deposition and plant innate immunity against bacteria (Li et al., 2010). The oppositely reacted miR160 and miR398 in A. sinensis suggested that they might be important regulators and play a more distinct role on agarwood formation.

Further study on miRNAs profiling of wounded A. sinensis showed that some of the most conserved miRNAs such as miR159 and miR396 families elevated and subsided quickly in early period of treatment implying their function at the upstream of wound responses (Gao Z. H. et al., 2014). The down-regulated miR396b2 in wounded tissues of A. sinensis was suggested to involve in the biosynthesis and accumulation of agarwood constituents. The target of miR396b2, which has glutamyl-tRNA reductase activity, was believed to bind NADP and produce NADPH. The NADPH is the cofactor for the two key enzymes in terpene biosynthesis, i.e., 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5 phosphate (DXR) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMGR) (Nagegowda, 2010). Furthermore, plant P450s that oxidatively functionalize the terpene scaffolds also require reducing agents for its catalytic activity, which is commonly provided by NADH or NADPH. Despite in the situation of lacking sequenced genome, high-throughput transcriptome analysis provides a feasible approach to examine the overall changes of gene expression on Aquilaria species responding to a variety of stresses. Further investigation of the functions of the identified regulator sequences would help to reveal the regulation mechanism of agarwood formation.

Future Prospects of Agarwood Induction Technology

Previous studies have shown that agarwood formation can be influenced by many factors. Together with the exceedingly complex agarwood resin composition, it is believed that agarwood formation is an intricate process which involved a variety of physiological changes occurs on Aquilaria trees to cope with the external stimuli either in the form of biotic or abiotic. This whole agarwood formation process is in any case inseparable from the gene-expression response of the trees toward the triggering factors. Consequently, future improvement of agarwood induction technology should emphasize on two aspects that are to further improve the induction efficiency and to screen more responsive lines of Aquilaria for resin production under breeding program.

In order to improve the induction efficiency, an induction technique plays a decisive role. The concept of currently available induction approaches can be summarized as either to provide external stimuli to activate the production of plant signaling molecules that eventually lead to the resin biosynthesis, or to bypass the external stimuli via direct introduction of signaling molecules to the plants. In any case, the overall concern is to increase agarwood yield and quality as well to reduce human intervention (e.g., holing process) during the induction process. Since the aforementioned physical wounding and biological induction method have their inevitable drawbacks of inconsistent agarwood quality and requiring intensive workforce, the chemical induction method can be regarded as a promising approach for further optimization (Table 1). Comprehensive understanding of agarwood formation at the molecular level via high-throughput using omics approach such as trancriptomic and metabolomic appears to be advantageous for more targeted and directional improvement of the induction formulation rather than the trial- and error-based experimentations.

By coupling with omics approaches such as single molecule real time sequencing technology (SMRT) which offers longer read lengths and highly contiguous de novo assemblies (Rhoads and Au, 2015), thus it tends to be particularly useful for unsolved problems in genome and transcriptome of non-model Aquilaria species where their genomes are not available. With longer reads, the highly repetitive non-coding regulatory sequence of genes controlling the agarwood resin production can be easily obtained. Sequence similarity/identity-based integration can be used to establish the cross-reference data sets between the query sequences and their homologous references from various public databases and genetic resources, where genomic sequence structures, domain features, promoter regions and gene ontology for motifs can be assigned (Mochida and Shinozaki, 2011).

The development of sequencing technology has made the future research on the whole genome sequencing of Aquilaria species to be easier to fill in the lack of genome-wide information in the current situation. Data integration based on genome sequence is important to allow analysis of global changes of transcriptome through whole genome microarrays. The gene expression analysis of induced Aquilaria at its entirety can be examined in broad coordinated trends by this approach, which is indiscernible by individual assays. The expression profiles obtained in this way will help to identify potential agarwood-producing biomarker genes that are important indicators for downstream applications of agarwood induction.

The integration of systems biology and omics approaches, covering genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and functional analysis; provide a potential solution to comprehend the multigenic nature of resin biosynthesis in Aquilaria. On the basis of large number of previously conducted agarwood induction experiments, transcriptomic and metabolites studies (Naef, 2011; Gao X. et al., 2014; Ye et al., 2016; Wu et al., 2017), integrated omics analysis can indeed serve as a platform to build a more comprehensive picture of agarwood resin biosynthetic mechanism that involve different omics layers. The development of high-throughput mass spectrometry (MS), microarray and sequencing technologies (DNA and RNA) have made it possible to integrate such data into a system biological framework via integrated-omics which would help to predict gene-gene interactions, identify driver genes and the molecular signatures of agarwood formation (Figure 5).

Likewise, potential signaling molecules for agarwood formation can be predicted in a wake of this dramatically increased availability of data. Experimentally validated effective signaling molecules can be added into the existing recipe of chemical inducer to further enhance the induction performance. Moreover, predetermination of resin composition or the agarwood quality is conceivable with deep understanding of the key quality indicators and the specific pathways involved for agarwood production by integrated elucidation of different metabolite and transcript profiles under different induction methods. Future improvement of agarwood induction efficiency should accompany with the development of monitoring system for early detection of non-responsive trees which could avoid cutting down of Aquilaria trees that are unsuccessfully been induced. This can be achieved by monitoring the expression of a set of genes involved in agarwood resin biosynthesis.

Schematic representation of application of omic approaches in the development of agarwood inducers. PacBio, Pacific Biosciences; Illumina, Illumina sequencing; Pyroseq, pyrosequencing; RNAseq, RNA sequencing; 2D-PAGE, 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; DIGE, differential gel electrophoresis; ChIP seq, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing; GC-MS, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; LC-MS, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance.

Aside of the effective inducer, the responsiveness of Aquilaria trees toward stimulation is another determining factor for the production of agarwood. By knowing that the degree of plant response on stimuli is largely dependent on their genetic makeup, the utilization of highly responsive Aquilaria line as induction target is expected to further increase the agarwood yield rather than optimizing the inducer recipe alone.

Conventionally, selective breeding based on phenotypic selection have been adopted to develop new plant lines with desirable traits. Current technology associates these beneficial traits of plants to genetic (DNA/RNA variations) or biochemical (signature metabolites) markers to allow marker-assisted selection (MAS). The approach of MAS offers a great promise for the selection of elite Aquilaria lines as these biomarkers can be applied to predict the phenotypic characteristics before these features develop into more noticeable. Such biomarkers can also be used for the development of fast and targeted diagnostic assays that will assist the selection program. As an alternative to obtain a high-yield line, a combined approach of genetic engineering (e.g., CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology) with tissue culture could pose a possibility to manipulate the key regulator genes of Aquilaria involved in the agarwood production which will help to fine tune or redirect the metabolic flux toward desired metabolic pathways.

On the whole, an integrated and high-throughput strategy will provide sufficient information to continually improve the agarwood induction methods, which is superior compare to the traditional way of induction method establishment that rely on the visual observation and personal experience. A deeper insight into the essential compounds and the biosynthesis mechanism of agarwood resin would greatly ease to control the stability of agarwood yield, quality and its price in the future.


Source: Scientific report on Agarwood by the authors:

  • Gao et al., 2012b;
  • Singh & Sharma, 2015
  • Rohmer, 1999;
  • Dong et al., 2015 ;
  • Xu et al., 2013;
  • Ye et al., 2016
  • Rohmer, 1999;
  • Yang et al., 2013;
  • Gaffe et al., 2000;
  • Liu X. M. et al., 2017
  • Kenmotsu et al., 2011
  • Azzarina et al., 2016
  • Khadem & Marles, 2011;
  • Yang et al., 2012;
  • Tawfik et al., 2014
  • Reis et al., 2017
  • Ibrahim & Mohamed, 2015
  • Wang et al., 2001
  • Liu X. et al., 2013,
  • Cucumis melo L. (Ibrahim , 2014)
  • Shao et al., 2016
  • Wu et al., 2012b;
  • Yang et al., 2014a
  • Liao et al., 2018
  • Goel & Makrandi, 2006;
  • Cui et al., 2013;
  • Chhipa và Kaushik, 2017
  • Sinha et al., 2011;
  • Xu C. et al., 2017
  • Tuteja và Mahajan, 2007
  • Ambawat et al., 2013;
  • Phukan et al., 2016;
  • Schmiesing et al., 2016
  • Ma et al., 2009
  • Xu Y. H. et al., 2017
  • Hong et al., 2012
  • Ito et al., 2005;
  • Kumeta & Ito, 2010
  • Li et al., 2010
  • Rhoads & Au, 2015
  • Mochida & Shinozaki, 2011
  • Naef, 2011;
  • Gao X. et al., 2014;
  • Ye et al., 2016;
  • Wu et al., 2017
  • NCBI (

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Body Lotions

A lotion is an amalgamation of water in oil or oil in water, both containing an emulsifying agent; and it can be very hard to achieve just the right balance using the raw materials at home. In theory essential oils can be incorporated into any lotion or cream and there are many on the market that are pure and natural and that you could use as a base.

To make body lotions, just add a single oil or blend of essential oils to the lotion or cream and mix as thoroughly as possible. The essential oils will not be as effective as if diluted in a simple vegetable base oil, because they may not be distributed as evenly.

Body Splashes

Body splashes are invigorating sprays or slap-on water-based lotions that have a variety of uses. They can stimulate or tone, uplift or relax- depending on what essential oil you use.

They are fun to make because they are so simple, and they also make good gifts for friends. Have an array of them in your bathroom ready to use whenever the mood takes you. Splashes are favorite with men as they do a great job of making you feel good without leaving an oily residue. They leave the skin feeling soft, and as bactericides and deodorants they are highly effective.

In times past, body splashes were called “les vinaigres de toilette” and we follow the same principle and use, in some cases, the same ingredients. The vinegar to use is white wine or cider, whichever you prefer. If you use vodka, the higher the proof the better. Don’t use these splashes, however, if you have sensitive or dehydrated skin.


  • Vinegar 4 ounces
  • Vodka 2 teaspoons
  • Lavender  5 drops
  • Sage  5 drops
  • Lemon 5 drops
  • Rosemary 5 drops
  • Peppermint  3 drops
  • Grapefruit 3 drops

Add to 2 cups spring water

First blend the essential oils together. Add them to the vodka and shake well for as long as you can. Leave them all to settle, then add the vinegar. Pour the whole mixture into 2 cups of spring water and again, shake well. Finally, pass the liquid through a paper coffee filter. The longer you leave the essential oils in the vodka and vinegar mix before adding to the water, the stronger scent will be.

Follow this same procedure when making all the splashes that follow. Here again are the basic ingredients:


  • High proof vodka 2 teaspoons
  • White wine or cider vinegar 4 ounces
  • Spring water 2 cups


  • Lime 10 drops
  • Lavender 10 drops
  • Peppermint 5 drops
  • Lemon 3 drops


  • Benzoin 10 drops
  • Nutmeg 2 drops
  • Sandalwood 10 drops
  • Geranium 5 drops


  • Orange 10 drops
  • Lemon 5 drops
  • Mandarin 10 drops
  • Grapefruit 5 drops


  • Lemongrass 18 drops
  • Basil 2 drops
  • Black pepper 3 drops
  • Sage 5 drops
  • Patchouli 3 drops

Wish you always healthy and happy in life.

  • This article is for reference only and to share experiences, and is not a substitute for medical diagnosis or treatment.

Please see more: Facial Skin Care With Herbal Essential Oils; SKINEROIL – SKIN CARE ESSENTIAL OIL

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Sesquiterpene and its benefits to humans and plants


Sesquiterpenoids, and specifically sesquiterpene lactones from Asteraceae, may play a highly significant role in human health, both as part of a balanced diet and as pharmaceutical agents, due to their potential for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and cancer.

This review highlights the role of sesquiterpene lactones endogenously in the plants that produce them, and explores mechanisms by which they interact in animal and human consumers of these plants. Several mechanisms are proposed for the reduction of inflammation and tumorigenesis at potentially achievable levels in humans.

Plants can be classified by their specific array of produced sesquiterpene lactones, showing high levels of translational control. Studies of folk medicines implicate sesquiterpene lactones as the active ingredient in many treatments for other ailments such as diarrhea, burns, influenza, and neurodegradation. In addition to the anti-inflammatory response, sesquiterpene lactones have been found to sensitize tumor cells to conventional drug treatments.

This review explores the varied ecological roles of sesquiterpenes in the plant producer, depending upon the plant and the compound. These include allelopathy with other plants, insects, and microbes, thereby causing behavioural or developmental modification to these secondary organisms to the benefit of the sesquiterpenoid producer. Some sesquiterpenoid lactones are antimicrobial, disrupting the cell wall of fungi and invasive bacteria, whereas others protect the plant from environmental stresses that would otherwise cause oxidative damage.

Many of the compounds are effective due to their bitter flavor, which has obvious implications for human consumers. The implications of sesquiterpenoid lactone qualities for future crop production are discussed.

Nutritional Factors

For humans, lettuce and chicory (Lactuca sativa and Chicorium intybus L.) represent the major dietary sources of the sesquiterpene lactone. The benefits of eating fruits and vegetables as part of a healthy diet are widely known, and although statistics vary greatly between studies.

In addition to vegetables, beverages can also contribute to sesquiterpene consumption, with chicory root being used to make tea and sometimes used as a coffee substitute.

In addition, some Asteraceous plants are used to reduce the bitterness of some alcoholic beverages. Other sources of sesquiterpenoids include spices, such as anise and herbs, although their consumption is understandably smaller. Traditional medicinal plants can also be a significant source for some populations, as sesquiterpenoids often represent the active ingredient. These medicinal plants usually belong to the Asteraceae family, of which “malaria” (Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch. Bip.) Yarrow (Achillia spp.), and quinghaosu (A. annua) in the treatment of malaria, is among the most commonly used both historically and in current alternative treatments.


Sesquiterpenes là hợp chất ưa béo không màu. Quá trình sinh tổng hợp ở thực vật là từ ba đơn vị isoprene. Sesquiterpenes bao gồm 15 carbon xương sống, và trong khi cấu trúc của chúng đa dạng, phần lớn và các dạng chức năng nhất là chu kỳ, và do đó trọng tâm của bài tổng quan này sẽ dựa vào các hợp chất này.

Sesquiterpenes are colorless lipophilic compounds. Biosynthesis in plants is from three isoprene units, and occurs via farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), in the endoplasmic reticulum. Sesquiterpenes consist of a 15 carbon backbone, and whilst diverse in their structure, the majority, and the most functional forms are cyclic, and consequently the focus of this review will rest upon these compounds.

The large number of sesquiterpene synthases coupled with the fact that a single synthase may produce numerous products and further modifications after sesquiterpene synthesis, such as oxidation and glycosylation take place, result in a vast number of varied structures, many similar synthases may produce the same products, in different ratios which affect the metabolite profile of a plant and can be used to classify closely related species or subspecies.

Regulation of the pathways is highly controlled in some species where sesquiterpenes are produced as a stress response, Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) produces sesquiterpenes only in response to herbivory, and 26 unigenes coding seven enzymes have been characterized. Oxidation of the 3C side chain of germacranolides is responsible for the formation of the lactone ring in germacranolides type sesquiterpenes, and guaianolides and eudesmanolides are further derived from this.

Biosynthesis of sesquiterpene lactones is highly characterized, with detailed reports available amongst others. Germacranolides, guaianolides, pseudoguianolides and eudesmanolides (Figure 1) are the most representative classes, germacranolides being the most significant with regards to their function in humans. Eudesmanolides (Figure 1A,B) have two fused 6 membered rings: germacranolides have a 10 membered ring; (Figure 1C,D): Guaianolides (Figure 1E–H) have a 7-membered and a 5-membered ring, and a methyl group at C-4: Pseudoguaianolides (Figure 1I–N) have a 7-membered and a 5-membered ring and a methyl group at C-5. All contain a fused 5-membered lactone group (γ lactone) with a carbonyl moiety at the alpha position.

Figure 1
Eudesmanolides α-santonin (A), β-santonin (B), germacranolides; Parthenolide (C), Lactuside A (D), guaianolides; 8-deoxylactucin (E), 11.(S),3-dihydrolactucopicrin (F), lactucin (G), lactucopicrin (H), Pseudoguaianolides; helenalin (I), Hymenin (J), lettucenin A (K), parthenin (L), tenulin (M), Strigolactones; 8-deoxy-strigol (N) Cadinanolide; Artemisinin (O), Seco-cadinanolide; Artemisinic acid (P)

Pharmacological effects of sesquiterpene

1. Inhibits cancerous tumor growth and induces cytotoxicity

According to studies on plant-based compounds with anti-cancer properties, scientists have discovered that sesquiterpenes are on the list of such substances. According to studies, there are about 50 types of sesquiterpenes evaluated to have the ability to inhibit the growth of tumors in experimental models.

Cancer cells

Scientists have found that all types of sesquiterpenes that are potentially cytotoxic to cancer contain lactone function, with the exception of sesquiterpenes that contain double bonds at the α, β and α-ethylenic positions.

In a further study of the mechanism of action and structure relationship between sesquiterpene lactones, it was noted that the presence of an extracyclic double bond at the C11–C13 position is essential. essential for cytotoxicity of cancer cells.

One of the typical sesquiterpenes in fighting cancer cells is parthenolide. This active ingredient has been studied and used a lot in Europe in the treatment of cancer.

Parthenolide’s mechanism of action may be due to: stimulation of the natural apoptosis process of cancer cells (apoptosis), inhibition of NF activity – kappa B.

2. Antibacterial, inhibits the growth of fungus

According to the researchers, this antibacterial activity has been reported in several plant species containing high levels of sesquiterpenes.

These sesquiterpenes have been shown to inhibit the growth of:

  • Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli.
  • Candida albicans và some worms.

And two sesquiterpenes have been isolated that show strong antibacterial effects: tanachin and tavulin. However, the inhibitory effect of tavulin was weaker than that of tanachin.


Besides, some types of serquiterpenes also have the ability to fight viruses, such as the well-known active ingredient such as artemisinin isolated from the plant. This active ingredient is commonly used in the treatment of dengue fever caused by the dengue virus.

Not only that, but some active ingredients that are semi-synthetic from artemisinin such as artesunate also work against some viruses such as:

  • HCMV (human cytomegalovirus).
  • Herpes simplex virus type – 1 (HSV – 1).
  • Epstein – Barr virus

3. Has anti-inflammatory properties

According to experts, sesquiterpenes have the ability to regulate a number of inflammatory processes, such as phosphorylation, platelet aggregation, histamine and seretonin release.

Sesquiterpenes have anti-inflammatory activity

However, the main inflammatory response inhibited by sesquiterpenes involves nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). A comprehensive study by Bork et al showed that 54 Indian and Mexican medicinal plants, all rich in Sesquiterpene lactones, had potent inhibitory effects on the NF-κB pathway.

NF-κB is a family of proteins that control DNA transcription, cytokine production, and cell survival. The proteins form heterozygous or homozygous cytoplasmic complexes consisting of p50 and p65 subunits.

A comprehensive study by Siedle et al. described 103 sesquiterpenes from 6 subclasses that inhibit NF-κB DNA binding.

Not only that, they found that the majority of sesquiterpenes with this activity belonged to the guaianolide subgroup and that the presence of an unsaturated carbonyl group played a major role in cytotoxicity.

Typical for sesquiterpenes with anti-inflammatory activity among these compounds are zerumbone and parthenolide.

4. Antioxidant activity

Sesquiterpen lactone group is considered a group of substances with very strong antioxidant activity. Researchers Ruberto and Baratta looked at the lipid-oxidizing capacity of a wide range of plant essential oil components and found that sesquiterpenes have stronger oxidizing activity due to the presence of the allylic alcohol component.

In addition, scientists also put forward the view that thanks to strong antioxidant properties, the sesquiterpen group has the ability to inhibit the growth of tumors through affecting the process of spontaneous apoptosis. nature of cancer cells.

Hopefully, the information that the article has shared has helped you gain more important knowledge about sesquiterpenes and the benefits of this active ingredient to human health.

Wish you always healthy and happy in life.

  • This article is for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for medical diagnosis or treatment.
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Agarwood: Current and Future Perspectives


Agarwood is a resinous part of the non-timber Aquilaria tree, which is a highly valuable product for medicine and fragrance purposes. To protect the endangered Aquilaria species, mass plantation of Aquilaria trees has become a sustainable way in Asian countries to obtain the highly valuable agarwood. As only physiologically triggered Aquilaria tree can produce agarwood, effective induction methods are long sought in the agarwood industry.

In this paper, we attempt to provide an overview for the past efforts toward the understanding of agarwood formation, the evolvement of induction methods and their further development prospects by integrating it with high-throughput omics approaches.


Agarwood (also known as gaharu in the South East Asia, oud in the Middle East, chen xiang in China, jinkoh in Japan and agar in India) is a highly valuable aromatic dark resinous heartwood of Aquilaria species (Liu Y. Y. et al., 2017). The formation of agarwood is generally associated with the wounding and fungal infection of the Aquilaria trees (Liu Y. et al., 2013; Mohamed et al., 2014). The resin is secreted by the trees as defense reaction and deposited around the wounds over the years following the injury, where the accumulation of the volatile compounds eventually forms agarwood (Subasinghe and Hettiarachchi, 2013).

Agarwood has been widely used as therapeutic perfumes, traditional medicine, religious purposes and aromatic food ingredient (Liu Y. et al., 2013). Some of the earliest known uses of agarwood were recorded in ancient literatures, religious scriptures and medical texts. The word “aloes” which means agarwood was found occurring in the Sanskrit poet, Kâlidâsa that can be dated back to c. 4th–5th century CE (Lee and Mohamed, 2016). Meanwhile, the use of agarwood in the prescription of traditional Chinese medicine of the same period had also been recorded. The Chinese medicine uses it as a natural sedative, pain reliever, digestive aid and carminative (Ye et al., 2016; Liu Y. Y. et al., 2017).

Agarwood has high demand throughout the world as a raw material for incense, perfume and medicine purposes, with Middle East and East Asia as the two major regions of consumption (Antonopoulou et al., 2010). As the wealth of the consumer countries has gradually increased in the recent decades, the market’s demand for agarwood started to exceed its supply. Global agarwood prices can be ranging from US$ 20 – 6,000 per kilogram for the wood chips depending on its quality or US$ 10,000 per kilogram for the wood itself (Abdin, 2014). In addition, the value of agarwood essential oil can be as high as US$ 30,000 per kilogram. The annual global market for agarwood has been estimated to be in the range of US$ 6 – 8 billion (Akter et al., 2013), yet a large number of the trades have not been recorded.

Aquilaria belongs to the Thymelaeaceae family of angiosperms, which is endemic to the Indomalayan realm. To date, there is a total of 21 Aquilaria species which have been documented and 13 of them are recognized as the agarwood-producing species (Lee and Mohamed, 2016). The destructive exploitation of agarwood, however, has badly affected the wild population of all Aquilaria species. As a consequence, the genus is now listed as endangered species and protected under Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) regulation due to a drastic declination of the species in the wild (Convention On International Trade In Endangered Species [CITES], 2004; Lee and Mohamed, 2016).

Agarwood plant

High demand of quality agarwood in conjunction with the depletion of the wild Aquilaria trees implied that the price of the agarwood will continue to soar. As an alternative, mass cultivation and large plantation of Aquilaria trees which serve as a sustainable source to obtain agarwood have greatly resolved the shortage of agarwood supply in the global market.

Since healthy Aquilaria tree does not form agarwood, leaving it worth next to nothing, the scarcity of naturally occurring agarwood has prompted the development of artificial agarwood-inducing methods. Efforts to artificially induce the agarwood formation can be traced back to as early as 300 C.E. in the Chinese history, where it was recorded that resin deposition accompanied with color changes of internal tissues can happen within a year by injuring the trees (López-Sampson and Page, 2018). Besides mechanical wounding approach, the use of chemical, insect and pathogen-inducing techniques is increasingly common in the agarwood industry nowadays (Liu Y. et al., 2013; Mohamed et al., 2014; Kalita, 2015).All of these induction techniques in any case mimic the natural processes of agarwood formation, which have their own strengths and weaknesses.

In this article, we endeavor to provide a more comprehensive coverage of existing induction methods and their development prospects using the advancement of biotechnology. To better understand the agarwood formation process, the molecular mechanism of secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways underlying the resin production will also be elaborated.

Agarwood Induction Approaches

The indiscriminate harvesting of agarwood from natural habitats has seriously hampered natural regeneration of Aquilaria trees, thus threatening the survival of the species in the wild. In order to meet the high market demand yet to protect the species from extinction, mass plantations of Aquilaria trees have been established across the Asian countries to allow sustainable agarwood production (Azren et al., 2018). Since agarwood formation in natural environment is a very long process which can take up to 10 years, the development of effective induction technology has received a great attention as it is extremely crucial to ensure the stability of agarwood yield from the domesticated Aquilaria trees.

Naturally, agarwood formation is often linked to the physical wounding or damage of Aquilaria trees caused by thunder strike, animal grazing, pest and disease infestations (Rasool and Mohamed, 2016; Wu et al., 2017). These events expose the inner part of the trees toward pathogenic microbes, which elicit the defense mechanism of Aquilaria to initiate the resin production. This natural formation process of agarwood has greatly inspired the development of diverse artificial induction methods (Table 1).

For example, many traditional induction approaches like nail in setting, holing, burning, trunk breaking and bark removal have adopted the concept of physically wound the trees (Mohamed et al., 2010; Azren et al., 2018). Although it is cost effective and requires only personnel with little or no scientific knowledge on agarwood, but these induction methods usually result in inferior quality and uncertain yield of agarwood.

Strengths and weaknesses of different types of agarwood inducing methods.

Agarwood formation Description Reference
Natural factors
-Thunder strikes
-Broken branches
-Animal grazing
-Pest and disease
Create wounds for pathogenic microbes to enter and trigger the tree’s defense system
-Unsustainable, undetermined and extremely low yield
-Require extensive and indiscriminately harvesting of wild trees
-Possible to obtain high quality agarwood
-No cultivation, plantation and induction required
Mohamed et al., 2010; Azren et al., 2018


Conventional methods
-Physical wounding
-Wounding using axe or machete
-Bark removal
-Holing and nailing
-Physical wounds of the tree will trigger the agarwood formation.
-Longer time is required to get the agarwood with uncertain quality
-Localized agarwood formation only at the injured areas
-Cost effective
Rasool and Mohamed, 2016; Wu et al., 2017
Non-conventional methods
(1) Biological consortium (Some fungal strain used for induction including Aspergillus sp., Chaetomium sp., Fusarium sp., Lasiodiplodia sp., Penicillium sp., and Xylaria sp.)
Introducing microbial cultures into the tree to mimic pathological infection to Aquilaria.
-Require a long incubation time and localized agarwood formation at the inoculated area
-Laborious and time-consuming to make holes and maximized the agarwood yield
-Inconsistency of agarwood quality due to different fungal strains or species used
– Microbial cultures can be prepared at low cost and easily available
– Biological agents are obtained from natural source and often relate to be safe for handling and environmental friendly
Mohamed et al., 2014; Rasool and Mohamed, 2016; Sangareswari Nagajothi et al., 2016
(2) Chemical inducers
(Phytohormones, salts, minerals, biological-derived substances, and others, e.g., NaCl, H2O2, formic acid, Agar-wit, Agar-bit, and CA-kit)
Induce tree’s defense mechanism directly with either chemicals or signaling molecules
-Skeptical impact on human health and environment
-Need to be applied at the right dose to obtain optimal strength of induction
-Fast results and high yields
-Easy to apply in large-scale plantations
-Consistent yield and quality
-Can induce agarwood formation in the whole tree/systemic manner
Zhang et al., 2012; Liu X. et al., 2013; Van Thanh et al., 2015

The Main Constituents of Agarwood

The main attraction of the agarwood industry is its extremely high market value. Yet, the price of agarwood is largely determined by its quality which is graded solely based on human experience from the age-old practices of each country. The unavailability of standard quality grading system can be due to the intricate appearance of the traded agarwood and personal interest.

The currently adopted agarwood quality assessment in the market has been extensively reviewed by Liu Y. Y. et al. (2017). Recently, the metabolite analysis of agarwood has gained increasing attention as some studies showed that there is correlation of agarwood quality to its resin yield and metabolite constituents (Pasaribu et al., 2015; Liu Y. Y. et al., 2017).

Many studies have been conducted to clarify the metabolite composition of agarwood obtained either from wild or artificially induced methods (Chen et al., 2012; Gao X. et al., 2014; Hashim et al., 2014). It was concluded that the composition of agarwood resin is mainly composed of the mixtures of sesquiterpenes and 2-(2-phenylethyl) chromones (PECs) (Naef, 2011; Chen et al., 2012; Subasinghe and Hettiarachchi, 2015; Figure 1). Meanwhile, the constituents of agarwood essential oil were shown primarily to be sesquiterpenoids (Fazila and Halim, 2012; Hashim et al., 2014; Jayachandran et al., 2014). Together, all of these major compounds and some low abundant volatile aromatic metabolites form the unique and fragrant-smelling property of agarwood.

The number and types of agarwood metabolite constituents of each reported studies vary depending on the agarwood source, extraction methods and analysis approaches used (Fazila and Halim, 2012; Jong et al., 2014; Pasaribu et al., 2015).

Nonetheless, there are over 150 compounds as reviewed by Naef (2011) have been identified thus far in agarwood from different sources. Among these compounds, there are 70 sesquiterpenes and about 40 types of PECs which have been recognized in agarwood and their structures have been elucidated (Naef, 2011).

Several sesquiterpenes were observed to be more frequently present in agarwood from different studies, including aromadendrene, agarospirol, β-agarofuran, guaiol and (-)-aristolene (Fazila and Halim, 2012; Liu Y. et al., 2013; Jayachandran et al., 2014; Jong et al., 2014; Figure 2). Some sesquiterpenes are reported to be species-specific, such as jinkoh-eremol and epi-γ-eudesmol that only present in A. malaccensis, while baimuxinal only exists in A. crassna and A. sinensis (Naef, 2011; Liu Y. et al., 2013; Jong et al., 2014; Hashim et al., 2016).

It is worth mentioning that in the study of Pasaribu et al. (2015), the content of aromadendrene was found to be greater in higher grade agarwood and therefore it was suggested as an effective chemical marker for agarwood grading. Besides aromadendrene, Jayachandran et al. (2014) later has proposed an additional marker valencene which can be important in the grading of agarwood oil.


The PEC derivatives, as other major fragrance constituents of agarwood are the important contributors to the sweet, fruity and long lasting scent of agarwood when it is burnt. These compounds can only be detected by supercritical carbon dioxide and solvent extraction methods but never present in the extract of hydrodistillation (Yoswathana, 2013; Jong et al., 2014).

In comparison to the sesquiterpene constituents in agarwood, the types of PECs being determined by GC-MS are relatively limited. Structural studies revealed that all previously reported PECs in agarwood own the same basic skeleton (molecular weight: 250) and similar substituents, i.e., either hydroxy or methoxy groups (Mei et al., 2013). The percentage of 2(2-phenylethyl) chromone and 2-(2-4-methoxy-phenylethyl) chromone in the high grade agarwood such as kanankoh can be as high as 66.47 %, which is overwhelmingly higher than the lower-quality agarwood jinkoh that has only 1.5% (Ishihara et al., 1993).

Furthermore, the presence of certain PEC derivatives in agarwood was proposed to be useful in the evaluation of the grading of agarwood products (Shimada et al., 1982). There are 17 types of chromone derivatives which are agarwood specific and potential marker for the purpose of authentication (Naef, 2011). The substituted chromones, such as agarotetrol and isoagarotetrol (Figure 3), were shown to have positive correlation with the quality of agarwood obtained in the market with some exceptions (Shimada et al., 1986).

The types and derivatives of major compounds in agarwood are extremely wide and diverse, indicating the miscellaneous fragrance properties of agarwood from different species and regional sources. The better insight of agarwood metabolites will definitely facilitate the identification of universally accepted biomarkers for agarwood grading.

Since the publication of the comprehensive review of Naef (2011) regarding the major constituents of agarwood, new compounds continue to be discovered in the later studies (Wu et al., 2012a; Yang et al., 2014b; Wang et al., 2015). The number of discovered compounds in agarwood will certainly be further increased in the future.

Source: Scientific report on Agarwood by the authors:

  • Yoswathana, 2013;
  • Jong et al., 2014
  • Ishihara et al, 1993
  • Shimada et al., 1982
  • Naef, 2011
  • Shimada et al., 1986
  • Wu et al, 2012a;
  • Yang et al., 2014;
  • Wang et al., 2015
  • Pasaribu et al., 2015;
  • Liu Y. Y. et al., 2017;
  • Chen et al., 2012;
  • Gao X. et al., 2014;
  • Hashim et al., 2014
  • Rasool & Mohamed, 2016;
  • Wu et al., 2017
  • Azren et al., 2018
  • Rasool & Mohamed, 2016;
  • Fazila & Halim, 2012;
  • Jayachandran et al ., 2014;
  • NCBI (

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Facial Skin Care with Herbal Essential Oils

Facial Skin Care with Face Oils

Natural Essential Oil
Natural Essential Oil

Essential oils make marvelous face oils. In this section treatments are given for three of skin and, in general, you need 30 types of drops of essential oil for each 2 tablespoons of base oil, unless specified. If you want a more intensive treatment, use 45 drops of essential oil.

Combination skin is a patchwork of normal, oily, and dry skin with the oily patches usually occurring on the forehead, nose, and chin, and these are often accompanied by blackheads. Treat combination skin as normal skin, and if oily patches are a problem use the face oils for oily skin on those areas. As the skin starts to balance you can adjust the treatment accordingly. Our skins can change quite rapidly, so do take notice of the changes and always facial skin care.

Types of Facial Skin

Normal Skin

Really, there is no such thing as normal skin. Or, more correctly, children have normal skin and the rest of us aspire to it!

The perfect skin of prepuberty is plump, in the sense that the cells are plump, neither dry nor oily, firm and solid, finely textured with no visible pores, spots, or blemishes, soft and velvety to the touch, and unwrinkled. Adults can only yearn for this perfection, and we call skin “normal” if it reaches somewhere near it–about halfway is good enough. The term “normal” is so inappropriate in this context that I prefer to call this type of skin “evenly balanced.”

If you have skin that falls into this category you could use almost any essential oil in your skin preparations, but you should stick to the gentle or even the sensitive type of oils to ensure that your skin remains near perfect.

  • Rose 15 drops
  • Chamomile German 5 drops
  • Lavender 5 drops
  • Lemon 5 drops
  • Diluted in 2 tablespoons of almond or hazelnut oil.

This moisturizer should be applied to damp skin. Massage it in and then dab the face with a tissue until no excess oil shows on the tissue.

  • Geranium 10 drops
  • Palma rosa 10 drops
  • Fennel 10 drops
  • Lemon 5 drops

Dilute in 2 tablespoons apricot kernel oil to which you have added 10 drops of evening primrose oil.

If you feel that your skin needs extra nourishment, add 5 drops of carrot oil.

Facial Skin Care

Dry to Normal Skin

When the sebaceous glands are not producing enough oil to keep the skin soft and  supple it  can become dry, prone to wrinkles, less supple, and flakiness may occur. In time it can become sensitive and prone to inflammation, and dehydrated easily by central heating, wind, and sun

This type of skin is prone to peeling and itching during periods of stress. It generally feels taut after washing. Sometimes dry skin is caused by menopause and hormonal changes..

Dry Skin Care

The outer layer of skin is not hydrated from the moisture that surrounds all human cells, interstitial fluid, because there is an impervious barrier between the outer layer of skin and those layers below, and the outer layer of skin is in fact dead and without the usual interstitial fluid of all other human cells. Nor, surprisingly perhaps, is it hydrated by the action of sebaceous glands. Rather, the fat produced by the sebaceous glands acts as a trap for the imperceptible and the visible perspiration which lubricates the outer layer of skin. If there is not enough fat being produced, the perspiration evaporates too quickly, leaving the skin too dry.

  • Chamomile German 5 drops
  • Sandalwood 15 drops
  • Bois de rose 5 drops
  • Hyssop 5 drops

Dilute in 2 tablespoons of the base vegetable oil to which added 10 drops of you have evening primrose and 2 drops of carrot oil.
Use in the same way as you would your usual moisturizing cream or lotion.


Blend the base oil:

  • Soya bean 2 teaspoons
  • Avocado 2 teaspoons
  • Wheatgerm 2 teaspoons
  • Jojoba 30 drops
  • Borage seed 10 drops
  • Evening primrose 20 drops

then add

  • Carrot 10 drops
  • Hyssop 5 drops
  • Rosemary  5 drops
  • Chamomile German 10 drops
  • Benzoin 10 drops
  • Geranium 15 drops

and blend again

This makes an extremely rich night oil. Massage a small amount into the skin, leave it for a while and then wipe off the excess with a tissue.

Oily to Normal Skin 

Oily skin is caused by overactive sebaceous glands. These are subject to hormonal changes which is why oily skin can become a problem during puberty. Overactive sebaceous glands can lead to seborrheic but more often the problem occurs as oily patches which leave the skin shining. Ironically, this condition often results from over-cleanliness- -specifically, scrubbing the face with harsh cleansers and soaps or using astringents that contain alcohol.

Oily Skin Care

Many commercial lotions which are designed to degrease a skin actually cause the sebaceous glands to produce more fat to compensate for the lack of it that results. This same vicious circle can apply to hair preparations. Thankfully, the essential oils have the capacity to balance the skin without making the glands produce more sebum and can provide the perfect solution to these sometimes intractable problems.

  • Juniper  8 drops
  • Geranium 10 drops
  • Lemon 10 drops
  • Rosemary  2 drops

Dilute in 2 tablespoons of hazelnut oil to which you have added 10 drops of carrot oil.
Massage the oil in and then dab the face with a tissue until no excess oil shows there.

  • Juniper 10 drops
  • Petitgrain  15 drops
  • Frankincense  5 drops
  • Marjoram 5 drops
  • Lemon 10 drops

Dilute in 2 10 drops tablespoons apricot kernel oil to which you have added 10 drops carrot oil.

This article is for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for medical diagnosis or treatment.


Natural essential oils; Alcohol-free; Chemical-free; Paraben-free

SKINEROIL – Skin Care Essential Oil
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Dandruff With Essential Oil


The tell-tale flakes of dead skin cells scattered on shoulders proclaim that someone’s head and hair are in bad condition. Even if you brush your hair thoroughly in the morning and brush your shoulders before leaving the house, by lunchtime those horrid little white flakes are back again, making a mess of your appearance and even, sometimes, your life. The manufacturers of dandruff shampoos are not in the business of clearing up the condition permanently, or who would there be to buy their product? But with essential oils you can get to the root of the problem and ban- ish this scourge once and for all.


Essential Oil for Dandruff


This first shampoo loosens the crusty layer of dead skin cells and, in the washing, these are taken off. Also, it stimulates the healing mechanisms of the skin to prevent further buildup of dandruff scales. Use this shampoo only, avoiding the harsh shampoos on the market.


This first shampoo loosens the crusty layer of dead skin cells and, in the washing, these are taken off. Also, it stimulates the healing mechanisms of the skin to prevent further buildup of dandruff scales. Use this shampoo only, avoiding the harsh shampoos on the market.

  • Soap stew 4 ounces
  • Rosemary 18 drops
  • Thyme   10 drops
  • Sage 8 drops

Blend together well

This next shampoo stimulates a healthy scalp and thick, shining hair:

  • Soap stew 4 ounces
  • Sage 10 drops
  • Lemon 10 drops
  • Basil 5 drops
  • Eucalyptus Peppermint 15 drops

Blend together well

Vinegar Rinse

Dandruff responds very well to treatment with the vinegar rinse. These are the basic ingredients:

  • Cider vinegar 1 tablespoon
  • Thyme 5 drops
  • Eucalyptus peppermint 5 drops
  • Sage 3 drops
  • Carrot 5 drops

Mix these together and put them into 1 ounce of spring water. Using about a teaspoon each time, massage into the scalp (not the hair) every night before going to bed.

Here is another overnight treatment that works very well. Again, this is a scalp conditioner so don’t rub it into the hair. Blend the ingredients together, dip your fingertips into the mixture, and massage the scalp:

  • Carrot oil 5 drops
  • Jojoba oil 15 drops
  • Evening primrose oil 15 drops
  • Cypress 3 drops




Natural essential oils; Alcohol-free; Chemical-free; Paraben-free

HAIROIL – Hair Care Essential Oil
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Uses Patchouli Essential Oil


Patchouli Essential Oil is Liquid type, viscous, amber color. Extracted from Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin). This plant mainly grows in tropical monsoon regions. In Vietnam, patchouli can be grown everywhere, but the quality of the essential oil depends on the microclimate.

Patchouli Material Area
Patchouli Material Area

Patchouli essential oil contains chemical components including:

  • Patchoulol.
  • Caryophyllene.
  • α-Bulnesene.
  • α-Guaiene.
Pure Patchouli Essential Oil

Benefits of Use Patchouli Essential Oil

Not only in the perfumery and cosmetics industry. Medical and medicinal experts also appreciate patchouli essential oil very highly because of the great values ​​it brings

1. Antidepressant

Patchouli Essential oil is commonly used in aromatherapy because of its depressant remedying properties. Because of the impact that inhaling patchouli oil has on our hormones, it encourages the release of serotonin and dopamine; these hormones ease feelings of anger, anxiety and anxiousness.

This is why patchouli oil is commonly used during prayer; it creates an atmosphere or tranquility.

2. Use patchouli essential oil to Reduces Inflammation (1)

Patchouli oil has antiphlogistic properties, which means that it has the power to soothe inflammation in the body. With inflammation at the root of most disease, patchouli oil can address internal inflammation and such conditions as arthritis and gout, and also deal with external inflammation that can be present in skin infections or irritations.

Giảm viêm

Rub five drops of patchouli oil into your hands and massage your feet, stomach, lower back or any other agitated or inflamed area.

3. Use patchouli essential oil to Prevents Infections (2)

There is always the risk of small wounds become infected and this leads to bigger problems, like tetanus. Patchouli oil is antiseptic, meaning it protects cuts or sores on the skin from becoming infected. It also kills fungus, so it can help if you are battling athlete’s foot or another fungal infection.

Nhiễm trùng

Simply rub 2–3 drops of patchouli oil on the infected area, or make yourself a warm bath with 5–10 drops of this infection preventing oil.

4. Use patchouli essential oil to Helps Metabolic System

Patchouli oil is a tonic, which means that is helps to tone your liver, stomach and intestines. This increases your ability to decompose food and absorb nutrients properly, so it impacts your digestive system. Because of these metabolic benefits, patchouli oil will give you more energy and help your body to function properly.

Inhaling patchouli oil with an oil burner or diffuser can make a big difference; you can also use patchouli oil as a dietary supplement. Try adding 1–2 drops to a cup of tea or a glass of water.

5. Stimulates Hormones

Patchouli oil has the power to stimulate hormones and increase your libido, or sex drive. It can be be considered as one of the natural remedies for impotency and erectile dysfunction. Used as an aphrodisiac for years, patchouli oil boosts your testosterone and estrogen levels, and this can have a huge impact on your intimate relationships.

6. Use patchouli essential oil to Strengthens Hair and Skin

Patchouli oil stimulates muscle contractions and, therefore, prevents hair loss or sagging skin. Patchouli essential oil regenerates new skin cells, and this keeps the skin looking young, healthy and vibrant. It is also great for all skin types — dry, cracked skin and oily or acne-prone skin; you will see the healing and germ-fighting benefits of this oil either way.

Try adding five drops of patchouli oil to your face wash or lotion, or you can massage the oil on your face directly. For your hair, massage five drops of patchouli oil into your scalp or add it to your conditioner.

7. Minimizes Scars

Because of its quick-healing properties, patchouli oil minimizes the look of scars or marks that are left from acne, wounds, measles, pox or boils. You can even heal bug bites with this powerful essential oil. To speed up the healing process of any unwanted marks on the skin.

Rub 2–3 drops of patchouli oil into your hands and then apply it the scarred area. Do this daily and you will begin to see the mark disappear.

8. Reduces Insomnia

It’s very important that you can a full night’s sleep; in fact, proper sleep has a positive impact on every system in your body. Because patchouli oil is a sedative, it helps to treat insomnia; it helps to put your mind and body at ease and allows you to rest peacefully.

Simply rub 2–3 drops of patchouli oil into your hands and cup your nose; just by breathing in the sweet scent of patchouli oil, you will experiences the benefits of its sedative properties. You can also touch your temples, neck and chest after rubbing the oil into your hands.

9. Use patchouli essential oil to Bug Repellent (3)

Just a few drops of patchouli oil will go a long way in keeping the bugs at bay. This bug-repelling oil can be used in sprays, lotions and vaporizers; it will repel mosquitoes, fleas, ants, lice, moths and flies.

You can use patchouli oil outside while you are gardening or dining in the backyard, or you can use it inside — especially if you are battling bed bugs or lice; try adding patchouli oil to your laundry detergent or burn five drops of the oil in an oil burner.

10. Fights fever

Patchouli oil has a number of powerful properties, which allows it to fight a fever and beat a cold with ease. Patchouli oil reduces inflammation and kills infections; this will bring down your body temperature and reduce the pain that is associated with a fever. It also has cooling properties, so rubbing the oil into your hands, neck and stomach will reduce your body temperature.

11. Natural Deodorant

Patchouli oil has a sweet, musky and spicy aroma; it can be used to mask body odor naturally. It also kills germs and fights fungus, so it’s makes a great natural home deodorizer for any infected area.

Rub 1–2 drops under your armpits or add it to your favorite body lotion. Keep in the mind that the scene it pretty strong, so only a drop or two will do the trick.

12. Natural Diuretic

Patchouli oil increases the frequency of urination, and this can be beneficial to your health in several ways: You are removing excess salt, water and uric acid, which is good for your gallbladder diet, kidney natural remedies and even a liver cleanse.

By removing toxins from your body, you can lower your blood pressure, lower cholesterol naturally and increase your appetite. You can consume 3–5 drops of patchouli oil by mixing it with lemon water or flavored tea.

Suggested recipes

  • Massage for swollen muscles, joints and tendons: 8 drops of chamomile + 3 drops of lavender + 3 drops of Helichrysum + 1 drop of orange + 3 drops of patchouli + 30ml of cream or Vegetable oil.
  • Deodorant foot bath: 5 drops of lavender + 5 drops of cypress + 2 drops of patchouli + warm water, soak for 15 minutes.
  • Steam to fight swelling caused by insect or insect bites: 10 drops of eucalyptus + 10 drops of patchouli + 10 drops of rosewood + 60ml of water to steam, steam into the bitten areas or steam your clothes to Avoid insects or vermin.
  • Bath room steam : lavender + geranium + patchouli + chamomile : equal proportions, very good smell, American and European style, for couples and lovers, can replace chamomile with crystal Rose oil, which can be burned and mixed with the massage base oil
  • Burn before going to bed: lavender + Grapefruit essential oil + Agarwood + patchouli: drop 8-10 drops. The scent lasts for 3-4 hours.

Please see more: Patchouli essential oil

100% Natural essential oils; alcohol-free; chemical-free; do not mix

Pure Patchouli Essential Oil
This article is for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for medical diagnosis or treatment.
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Uses Cinnamon Essential Oil

Cinnamon Essential Oil

Cinnamon has a long history and has been part of Eastern medicine for thousands of years. Since ancient times, physicians have used cinnamon to help treat conditions such as melancholy, depression to being overweight. Whether in the form of essential oils, tinctures, teas or herbs, cinnamon can provide many beneficial effects.

Cinnamon Plantion

What is Cinnamon Essential Oil?

Liquid, viscous, yellow. Extracted from Cinnamon Bark. This plant mainly grows in tropical monsoon regions. In Vietnam, patchouli can be grown everywhere, but the quality of the essential oil depends on the microclimate. Cinnamon essential oil produced by Bioremake company is extracted from Que Nam Tra my, Quang Nam.

Cinnamon essential oil is extracted from the bark of the tree and consists of three main components: cinnamaldehyde, eugenol and linalool. These components make up about 85% of the composition of cinnamon essential oil. The ratio of each ingredient depends on the part from which the plant is extracted.

  • The bark mainly contains: cinnamaldehyde
  • The leaves mainly contain: eugenol
  • Roots mainly contain: camphor

Not only in the perfumery, cosmetics, and food industries; Medical experts and herbalists also appreciate patchouli essential oil very highly because of the great values ​​it brings.

Benefits of uses Cinnamon Essential Oil

1. Good for the Heart

An animal study published in 2014 found that cinnamon essential oil was able to lower total cholesterol and bad cholesterol (LDL) while increasing good cholesterol (HDL). This makes it one of the best essential oils for heart health. You can view that study here.

Cinnamon Essential Oil – Good for the Heart

Cinnamon essential oil has also been shown to increase the production of Nitric Oxide (NO). A substance that works to increase blood flow, increase blood circulation to cells, thereby reducing the risk of heart attack and stroke. In addition, this essential oil also has anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet aggregation properties that help protect the arteries of the heart.

2. Reduce blood sugar, support diabetes treatment

Studies conducted on both humans and animals have demonstrated that: Cinnamon essential oil has the ability to increase insulin secretion. Thereby helping to lower blood sugar, keep blood sugar balance, help reduce cravings.

You can use pure cinnamon essential oil in your daily food to take advantage of its blood sugar-lowering benefits. However, do not overdo it because it can cause severe hypoglycemia. (

3. Uses Cinnamon Essential Oil for Skin, lip and hair care

Cinnamon essential oil has anti-inflammatory properties, so it can become a natural remedy to improve skin problems like dermatitis, rashes, acne. Once a week, gently massage your face with cinnamon essential oil and another carrier oil (coconut oil, almond oil, grape oil) to promote skin health.

Cinnamon Essential Oil – Skin care

Other way, this oil can also be used to condition hair. Many beauty magazines have suggested that people can use pungent oils like cinnamon to promote health and hair growth.

Make yourself a special hair treatment recipe consisting of cinnamon oil and almond oil, apply evenly to the hair shaft and then rinse after 30 minutes.

4. Uses Cinnamon Essential Oil Supports weight loss

Cinnamon essential oil has a weight loss effect thanks to the following 2 mechanisms:

  • It helps balance blood sugar, lower blood sugar, reduce cravings. Helps replace sugar in food.
  • A study in the journal Metabolism demonstrated that cinnamaldehyde (a component of cinnamon essential oil) has the ability to increase thermogenesis and metabolism in the subcutaneous fat layer of humans. Thereby helping to reduce fat, fight obesity.

5. Support the treatment of stomach ulcers

One of the main causes of stomach ulcers is the bacteria Helicobacter pylori (HP). A trial of 15 patients with peptic ulcer disease who tested positive for the bacteria looked at the effects of taking 40 mg of cinnamon extract for 4 weeks. The results showed that although cinnamon essential oil did not completely destroy HP bacteria, it did limit the invasion and attack of this bacteria.


Cinnamon Essential Oil – Support the treatment of stomach ulcers

A study published in 2000 also showed that a substance called eugenol (a component of cinnamon essential oil) has the ability to reduce the number and severity of ulcers.

6. Uses Cinnamon Essential Oil for Deodorize, Antiseptic, Anti-Parasite

Many studies have proven that cinnamon essential oil or cinnamon extract has the ability to inhibit the growth of some harmful parasites.


Cinnamon – Deodorize, Antiseptic, Anti-Parasite

A study published in 2014 demonstrated that a combination of ginger and cinnamon essential oils inhibited the growth of the parasite worms (G. lamblia). One cause of intestinal infection.
Research has also shown that cinnamon essential oil has the ability to fight the growth of the malaria parasite called Plasmodium falciparum. Researchers have found that this essential oil disrupts their amino acid biosynthesis.

7. Cinnamon essential oil reduces stress, prevents depression

Aromatherapy has long been used to relieve stress and depression. Massage with aromatherapy oil extracted from cinnamon will help you feel much more relaxed, thereby removing some of the heavy feeling present in your mind.


Giảm stress
Cinnamon essential oil reduces stress, prevents depression

Essential oils, including cinnamon, possess volatile compounds that will penetrate the body’s mouth, skin, and sense of smell. In this way, the oil can help prevent depression more effectively.

8. Natural aphrodisiac

In Indian Hindu medicine (also known as Ayurvedic) cinnamon is recommended for sexual dysfunction in men. Is this believable?

An animal study published in 2013 showed that cinnamon essential oil has the potential to treat impotence in men. Subjects in the study were animals with signs of age-related sexual impotence, and cinnamon essential oil extract was shown to improve sexual function in terms of both libido and erection.

9. Improves Digestion

If you are experiencing discomfort due to accidentally enjoying some foods that are difficult to digest, cinnamon oil can help you solve this problem. Add 1-2 drops of oil to a cup of warm water or tea, then take small sips to help soothe the stomach, making the digestive system work more smoothly.

Please see more : Cinnamon Essential Oil

This article is for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for medical diagnosis or treatment.


100% Natural essential oils; alcohol-free; chemical-free; do not mix

Pure Cinnamon Essential Oil
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Uses Essential Oil For Problem Skin

Mụn trứng cá

1.  Problem Skin: Broken Capillaries

Broken Capillaries

The very finest branches of the blood vessel system that serve the face can sometimes become broken. Usually the problem is concentrated on the cheeks although the whole face can be affected.

Broken capillaries seem to affect those with delicate and fragile skin, although this may in part be due to the fact that they just show more clearly than in thicker skin. Stimulants such as alcohol, coffee, sun, and wind are often the cause. These are the oils to use for their treatment

When making your own treatment oil or following the formula below, mix the essential oils together first and allow them to interact with ergistic each other to make a syneffect before adding to the base oil:

  • Parsley 20 drops
  • Geranium 10 drops
  • Cypress 5 drops

Dilute in 2 tablespoons almond oil to which you have added 10 drops of evening primrose

2. Problem Skin: Whiteheads /Milia

Whiteheads /Milia

When sebum gets trapped in a duct that has no opening on the surface a hard white lump appears. Milia usually affect dry skin and they can also appear after some damage has been done to the skin. Unfortunately, if you have had these for some time they will need to be removed by a beautician. But recently formed milia can be dispersed by massage. Use the following:

      • Bergamot: 5 drops
      • Thyme linalol: 5 drops

Diluted in 1 tablespoon vegetable oil

Use a very small amount of the oil to massage the milia twice a day, in the morning and at night. This will allow the milia to be reabsorbed by the body.

3. Problem Skin: Blackheads/Comedones


Blocked sebum becomes a blackhead when the surface cells develop sulphides which, in contact with the oxygen, turn the cells black. The main problem with blackheads, apart from their unsightliness, is that they can become infected when removed and the opening just gets filled up once again with more sebum. This condition is related to seborrhea, overproduction of the sebaceous glands.

But even a dry skinned person can develop blackheads, especially on the nose or chin, Blackheads can appear practically anywhere on the body, as well as on the face. A major culprit area is the back, but they can also be found on the chest, under arms, neck, and even around the pubic area. Wherever they are to be found, the treatment for blackheads is the same–they need removing.

Steaming provides an excellent way to loosen blackheads while the pores are opened. Get a bowl of hot, steaming water, drop some lavender oil on the water and put 1 cover your head with a towel, making sure the sides are closed, and steam your face for ten minutes. Rinse the face now with 1 teaspoon of cider vinegar in hot–but not boiling- -water. If the blackhead is loose, gently squeeze, taking care not to damage the skin. Then splash the face with this special mix:

      • Mineral water: 2 ounces
      • Cider vinegar: 2 teaspoons
      • Dầu Cây phỉ (Witch hazel): 1 teaspoons
      • Bergamot: 2 drops
      • Cypress: 2 drops

After dabbing the skin dry, massage the following oil into the skin. This will help prevent blackheads recurring while also loosening the ones that are already established:

      • Violet leaf: 5 drops
      • Lemongrass: 5 drops
      • Lavender: 2 drops
      • Clary-sage: 2 drops
      • Thyme linalol: 5 drops
      • Jojoba: 5 drops

Diluted in 2 tablespoons of almond oil.

Massage morning and night; use only pure soap; use eye makeup if you wish but avoid face makeup and powder.

4. Problem Skin: Spot

Have you ever noticed how spots seem to  break out  when they are least wanted?

I know a woman who didn’t have a single blemish on her skin until the day she got married, when, big spot appeared on the end of her nose! A spot can only “know” when it will be least welcome if it’s picking up signals from us, so instead of expressing negative fear–“I hope won’t get a spot on my big date“. –try some positive certainty: “My skin is going to look great.” If you already have a spot or one that’s on its way, apply the formula below while saying, “This spot is going to go”–and try to believe it!

Just smear a little of the Spot Mix neat on the troubled area of the skin twice a day. Allow three days for the spot to clear.

      • Camphor: 1 drops
      • Lemon: 1 drops
      • Lavender: 1 drops
      • Blend in 6 drops evening primrose oil

Small quantities of essential oil like this can be mixed in, and used from, an eggcup. If you are going to need larger quan- tities mix the three component oils in equal proportions in a bottle where a synergistic interaction between the molecules can take place, so that they are even more potent when you come to use them.

5. Problem Skin: Acne

Beauty is more than skin deep, but it can be hard for you –and other people– to remember that when you have acne. What you more usually see is an oily skin with a profusion of blackheads and pustules (spots) and sometimes too, scarring, pitting, and inflammation. Acne occurs not only on the face, but on the neck, back, and chest as well. Secondary infection by bacteria, usually staphylococcal, causes even more problems. Not only is acne unsightly, it is painful as well.

The temptation to squeeze the spots and remove the infected pus is great, and although the hope might be to improve the look of the skin, it only makes matters worse. Not only does it cause scarring, but the pus can infect other areas of the skin in the process. This is how one comes by the familiar pitted skin that invariably lasts throughout adulthood.

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Problem Skin: Acne

Although acne is very often a problem that starts with puberty, it can appear at any time. I have had patients who developed the problem in their thirties, as well as those in their twenties. Acne is often the result of seborrhea — overproduction of fat from the sebaceous glands –and this can be traced back to a hormonal imbalance. It is thought that too much of the male hormone androgen is produced. Women too experience hormonal-related acne, usually around the time of premenstrual syndrome.

Essential oil treatments combined with a sensible diet, exercise, and fresh air often clear up the problem. Lymphatic flow is increased, allowing toxic wastes to be taken away, and the circulation is improved, which allows oxygen and nutrients to reach the skin in greater quantity. The bactericide and antiinflammatory properties of essential oils are obviously extremely useful in helping the healing process. The relaxant properties of essential oils also play their part as stress is a precursor of increased sebum production.

Stimulants should be avoided. Smoking can aggravate the condition, as can alcohol, coffee, tea, and even chocolate. It is not the fattening aspect of chocolate that concerns us here but the chemical stimulants it contains, especially phenylethylamine and theobromine that imitate our hormones; and the caffeine and sugar chocolate contains make it doubly bad for acne.

For some people, cutting out dairy products, especially cream and hard cheese, helps enormously. Fruits, surprisingly perhaps, do not help acne because of their high sugar content, but vegetables do. Antibiotics are often prescribed for acne but they only treat the symptoms temporarily, and as they kill off the friendly intestinal bacteria we need to digest and eliminate toxins efficiently, they can make matters worse in the long run.

Retin A is used with great success, as is vitamin A You can of course take advantage of this simply by applying carrot oil, an extremely rich source of beta carotene and a natural source of vitamin A.

The treatment that follows comes in three stages and these are the oils to use:


Is to promote healing, reduce inflammation, and gently start to correct the imbalance of sebum production. This is done by using a routine over fourteen days, and it will take patience and more time for the acne to heal completely.

Use no harsh products –for cleaning the face use pure soap only and rinse at least twenty-five times with the tap running. Use warm water, not hot or cold. In the final rinse water put 2 tablespoons of cider vinegar, then pat the skin dry. During the day, wear the following oil. Do not wear any facial makeup whatsoever, nor any special coverups. Just the oil:

  • Chamomile German 10 drops
  • Myrrh 3 drops
  • Palma rosa 10 drops
  • Yarrow 5 drops
  • Chamomile Roman 7 drops
  • Carrot 20 drops

Diluted in 2 tablespoons of almond oil.

The carrot oil is bright orange and when on the skin gives you a healthy look. Leave the oil to soak into the skin for five minutes and then dab off the excess with a tissue.

In the evening, after cleansing and rinsing, rub 5 drops of neat night oil number one over the whole of the affected area and then apply a number two to the area. Leave this in place coating of night oil for five minutes and then wipe off the excess. Do not use any other cream, lotion, or potion.

  • Carrot oil 30 drops
  • Borage seed 60 drops
  • Chamomile German 5 drops

Blend together and use 5 drops each evening

  • Rose 10 drops
  • Palma rosa 10 drops
  • Chamomile Roman 5 drops
  • Myrrh 5 drops

Diluted in 2 tablespoons of base oil.

During these fourteen days get into the fresh air as much as possible. Eat only “live” food –fresh vegetables, fruit in moderation, grains, pulses, carbohydrates, and fish. Drink herbal teas and plenty of mineral water.

All additives and preservatives and the like must be avoided. Avoid any red meat or white that contains traces of an- tibiotics and hormones–which unless you have access to organically bred meats, means cut them all out. Increase your zinc with supplements and increase your vitamins C and B intake. Use no face masks or steam treatments during this time.


is to fight infection and continue the rebalancing program. Clean as before only this time make up a bottle that contains the following ingredients and use 1 teaspoon in the final rinse, patting dry afterwards.

  • Cider vinegar 4 ounces
  • Lavender 20 drops
  • Eucalyptus radiata 20 drops

Depending on the time of the day, use the appropriate oil below:

  • Eucalyptus radiata 5 drops
  • Clary-sage 5 drops
  • Thyme linalol 5 drops
  • Lavender 15 drops
  • Carrot 5 drops

Diluted in 3 tablespoons of almond oil.

Leave the oil to soak into the skin for five minutes and then wipe off the excess with a tissue.

  • Eucalyptus radiata 5 drops
  • Clary-sage 5 drops
  • Thyme linalol 5 drops
  • Lavender 15 drops
  • Carrot 5 drops

Diluted in 3 tablespoons of almond oil.

Leave the oil to soak into the skin for five minutes and then wipe off the excess with a tissue.

  • Evening primrose 30 drops
  • Carrot 20 drops
  • Bergamot 10 drops
  • Lavender 5 drops
  • Geranium 5 drops
  • Eucalyptus radiata 10 drops

Diluted in 3 tablespoons of almond oil.

Leave the oil to soak into the skin for five minutes and then wipe off the excess.

Follow the dietary advice outlined in stage one and continue stage two treatment for fourteen days.


is the last stage of the battle and by now your skin may look so much better you decide not to continue the treatment. But if you want to see further improvements, you must continue for another fourteen days. Use the cleansing rinse outlined in stage two, both morning and night, pat the face dry, and use the relevant day or night treatments below:

  • Neroli 10 drops
  • Fennel 5 drops
  • Geranium 5 drops
  • Parsley 5 drops
  • Lemon 5 drops

Diluted in 3 tablespoons of almond oil.

Leave the oil to soak into the skin for five minutes and then wipe off the excess.

  • Rose 10 drops
  • Violet leaf 8 drops
  • Carrot 10 drops
  • Galbanum 4 drops
  • Lemon 8 drops

Diluted in 3 tablespoons of almond oil.

When the six weeks are up continue to use the essential oils, choosing from those in the oily skin sections. Use only one hundred percent pure soaps and avoid harsh acne preparations.

6. Problem Skin: Rosacea

Problem Skin: Rosacea

Rosacea is often mistaken for acne because it is very similar and, like acne, it is associated with excessive oiliness. This condition seldom affects anyone under thirty years of age and it can be very distressing when it develops.

Usually, the nose and cheeks are the worst affected areas, and these become flushed red in appearance as spots (pustules) and lumps cover the skin. The treatment is similar to that for acne, except that the essential oils used are different. Follow the dietary and vitamin advice in the “Acne” section and intake carry out the cleansing and rinsing routine given there.

Treatment comes in two stages, each of fourteen days.


Follow the instructions for acne, stage one, but using the following formulas:

  • Chamomile German 15 drops
  • Parsley 15 drops

Diluted in 3 tablespoons of almond oil.

  • Galbanum 5 drops
  • Carrot 15 drops
  • Chamomile German 10 drops
  • Parsley 15 drops

Diluted in 3 tablespoons of almond oil.

After fourteen days, follow the instructions for acne, stage two, using the following formulas:

  • Cypress 15 drops
  • Geranium 15 drops

Diluted in 3 tablespoons of almond oil.

  • Violet leaf 10 drops
  • Hyssop 5 drops
  • Eucalyptus radiata 15 drops

Diluted in 3 tablespoons almond oil

7. Problem Skin: Puffiness or Hydrated Skin

Problem Skin: Puffiness or Hydrated Skin

When skin has a spongy texture it usually means that it has become waterlogged. This retention of water by the body may be related to the menstrual cycle, the result of a previous illness, or a reaction to certain drugs. Allergies, hay fever, and sinus problems can all lead to puffy eyes and face. Puffiness can also be a sign of illness, and is one of the first signs of an oedemic condition. Use these oils:

  • Lavender 10 drops
  • Sandalwood 5 drops
  • Fennel 10 drops
  • Cypress 5 drops

Diluted in 3 tablespoons of almond oil.

  • Carrot 5 drops
  • Juniper 5 drops
  • Patchouli 5 drops
  • Rose 10 drops
  • Sandalwood 10 drops

Diluted in 3 tablespoons apricot kernel oil

This article is for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for medical diagnosis or treatment.


100% Natural essential oils; alcohol-free; chemical-free; Paraben-free

SKINEROIL – Premium Skin Oil
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Uses Agarwood Essential Oil

What’s Agarwood (Oud) Essential Oil?

Liquid type, viscous, yellow, amber or dark brown. Extracted from the ingredients of the Aquilaria crassna tree (aquilaria crassna) with oil (accumulating agarwood) called agarwood (oud) essential oil. This woody plant mainly grows in India and the countries of Southeast Asia. In Vietnam, do gourd trees are distributed throughout the territory. When gathering agarwood, the resin in agarwood will have a dark color and give off a special fragrance.

Agarwood plant

Liquid type, viscous, yellow, amber or dark brown. Extracted from the ingredients of the Aquilaria crassna tree (aquilaria crassna) with oil (accumulating agarwood) called agarwood essential oil. This woody plant mainly grows in India and the countries of Southeast Asia. In Vietnam, do gourd trees are distributed throughout the territory. When gathering agarwood, the resin in agarwood will have a dark color and give off a special fragrance.

Agarwood essential oil has an uncanny detoxifying effect, strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, making it well-suited to aid in the treatment of a number of health problems such as relieving joint pain or soothing skin irritations.

Agarwood essential oil contains ingredients such as:

  • Benzyl acetone
  • a-curcumene
  • Spathulenol
  • d- Guaiene (= Alpha- Bulnesene) ***
  • Dihydroagarofuran
  • a-Santalol
  • …..

Benefits uses Agarwood essential oil:

1. Uses Agarwood Essential Oil to Helps to sleep well

You do not feel sleepy even though your body is tired after a stressful working day? Are you still rolling around in bed, trying to fall asleep even though it’s past midnight? Don’t worry, Agarwood essential oil can help you.


Agarwood essential oil- Helps sleep well

Experts appreciate this particular essential oil’s ability to act as a natural sedative. Therefore, Agarwood essential oil can help you fall asleep easier when you use it by diffusing with a vaporizer. In addition, the effectiveness of Agarwood will be even more outstanding when you add essential oils:

  • Lavender Essential Oil
  • Cedarwood Essential Oil
  • Chamomile Essential Oil

You can use pure agarwood essential oil or you can add some other natural essential oils under the advice of experts in herbal and medicinal essential oils.

2. Uses Agarwood Essential Oil to Digestive Support

For centuries, Indian and Japanese medicine has used Agarwood essential oil to aid digestion. Many researchers rate it as a natural laxative, diuretic and antidiarrheal. So, if you have problems related to the digestive system, especially the stomach, apply Agarwood essential oil on the stomach area in the abdomen. It can also improve symptoms of bloating and gas.

Digestive Support
Digestive Support

3. Uses Agarwood Essential Oil to soothes joint pain

Base on its anti-inflammatory properties, Agarwood essential oil makes an excellent folk remedy for pain or arthritis.
Before applying essential oil to an inflamed joint, you need to dilute it with another oil that acts as a solvent, such as:

  • Coconut oil
  • Sunflower oil
  • Saffron Oil
  • Grape Seed Oil

The ratio between Agarwood and solvent oil is 3 drops.

4. Solve the problem of allergies

Another property of Agarwood is anti-allergic. Therefore, if you are dealing with allergy symptoms, aromatherapy with Agarwood can help. In addition, its anti-inflammatory ability also easily put an end to the condition:

  • Sneeze
  • Cough
  • Itchy eyes
  • Irritation and runny nose

5. Uses Agarwood Essential Oil to prevent the development with cancer

According to an experiment in the pharmacopoeia, researchers found that Agarwood essential oil has the ability to spread breast cancer cells. More miraculously, this essential oil can also destroy mutated tumors.
However, experts still need more in-depth studies for the hypothesis of supporting cancer treatment of agarwood, in order to determine the mechanism of action before it is widely published.

6. Uses Agarwood Essential Oil to Stress Relief

Perhaps this is the oldest and most prominent use of Agarwood essential oil. Psychological problems such as: Stress, anxiety, depression, fear or anger are very common, especially in today’s society. There are many drugs that can solve this problem but often cause unfortunate side effects. The most common is addiction.

And of course used in a natural way, does not lead to addiction, has no side effects and Agarwood essential oil is a reasonable choice. According to doctors, when inhaling Agarwood essential oil will help reduce anxiety, stress, improve concentration. Along with that, it also helps prevent signs of depression as well as sleep disorders. Massaging Agarwood essential oil into the forehead and temples also helps you to relieve headaches very well.

Agarwood Essential Oil – Massage

7. Uses Agarwood Essential Oil to prevent aging

Agarwood essential oil has anti-aging effects thanks to its anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant properties, so agarwood essential oil today is used a lot for skin care and massage in high-class spas. You can use it to:

  • Improve aging skin such as wrinkles, crow’s feet, sagging, loss of elasticity
  • Cure acne
  • Soothes skin and reduces inflammation

8. Soothes skin irritation

The anti-inflammatory properties of Agarwood can also help with damaged skin. You can apply this essential oil in the following cases:

  • Eczema
  • Rosacea (blushing)
  • Allergic reaction
  • Insect bite wound
  • Sunburn

Do not forget to dilute Agarwood with essential oils before applying it to your skin.

9. Disinfection, deodorization, purification of evil spirits

Agarwood essential oil helps kill mold and bacteria effectively. This helps the atmosphere in your living space become fragrant and pleasant. Agarwood essential oil also helps to eliminate unpleasant odors, helping to bring your family space clean and comfortable. To bring high success, we need to put Agarwood essential oil in the working area, dining table, bedroom, kitchen, bathroom…

10. Acne Treatment and Skin Care

If you have a headache with excessive acne, try Agarwood essential oil. Strong anti-inflammatory as well as antioxidant properties will soothe your skin. At the same time, they also have the ability to deal with acne-causing bacteria.

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Rich in antioxidants, Agarwood has the effect of making the skin glow. This essential oil will protect your skin against ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun as well as free radicals. As a result, the rate of skin cancer will be reduced. At the same time, the presence of wrinkles as well as sun spots will also be erased.

Please see more: Agarwood Perfume Extrait; Agarwood Essential Oil Grade A; Agarwood Essential Oil Grade B

This article is for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for medical diagnosis or treatment.



Natural essential oils; alcohol-free; chemical-free; Paraben-Free

Tinh dầu Trầm Hương cao cấp - Agarwood Essential Oil

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Benefits of Shilajit


Is a natural substance found mainly in the Himalayas, formed over many centuries by the gradual decay of certain plants. It is a powerful and safe dietary supplement that restores energy balance and has the potential to prevent a number of diseases. With its unique composition is a biological complex that is rich in fulvic acid, humic acid…

Shilajit is commonly used in ayurvedic medicine. This is an effective and safe supplement that can have a positive effect on your overall health and well-being.


1. Slow down the aging process

Rich in fulvic acid, a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Shilajit may protect against free radicals and cell damage. From there, regular use of shilajit can contribute to increased longevity, slower aging, and better overall health.

2. Alzheimer’s disease

Tau protein is an important part of the nervous system, but its accumulation can cause damage to your brain cells. With a powerful set of antioxidants, Shilajit contributes to preventing the accumulation of tau protein, helping to enhance brain cognition.

Researchers suggest that the fulvic acid in shilajit may prevent the abnormal accumulation of tau protein and reduce inflammation, potentially improving symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.

3. Benefits of Shilajit for Male Physiology (Testosterone)

Shilajit has been tested for its ability to enhance male fertility. In 90 days, one study used shilajit for 60 days infertile man.

After the trial period, nearly half of the men who ended the therapy demonstrated an increase in total sperm count and sperm motility, or the amount and efficiency with which sperm move. move to the egg, both of which are important for male fertility.

4. Boosts the immune system

A 2012 study published in the journal Ethnopharmacology showed that shilajit helped reduce symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome in test subjects.

Researchers claim that shilajit can aid in enhancing cellular functions in the body, which implies that they can help alleviate fatigue and boost energy levels naturally.

5. Benefits of Shilajit for rehabilitates muscle and bones

Shilajit has been traditionally used as a panacea and it is a versatile remedy for muscle, nerve and bone repair.
A study in the field of 63 active recreational men , for a period of 8 weeks. The results demonstrated that supplementation with Shilajit (about 500 mg) promoted the maintenance of muscle strength.

6. Ulcer to be token in empty stomach

The anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer properties of the bioactive components contained in Shilajit are of great significance in the treatment of different types of ulcers such as ulcerative colitis, peptic ulcer, ulcers or mouth ulcers, etc It also promotes tissue regeneration and thus facilitates wound healing.

7. Reduces stress and anxiety.

Shilajit is beneficial for treating different types of mental problems like depression, dementia, etc. It stabilizes the doses of Vata and Pitta in the body. Thus, keeping serotonin levels under control and helping to relieve various anxiety symptoms. Including discomfort, restlessness, cold hands and feet…

The powerful antidepressant properties of this herb also help to calm the mind. Relieve all types of physical and mental stress. Improve energy and stamina.

8. High altitude sickness.

Altitude sickness can be caused by low barometric pressure, cold temperatures, or high wind speeds. Researchers suggest that shilajit can help you overcome altitude problems.

Shilajit contains fulvic acid and more than 84 minerals. As an antioxidant, it improves the body’s immunity and memory, increases energy and is a diuretic. Because of these benefits, shilajit helps combat many of the symptoms associated with greater altitude.

9. Kidney stones.

Shilajit is also useful in treating kidney stones, edema and hemorrhoids.. As an internal antiseptic.

10. Iron deficiency anemia

Iron-deficiency anemia can be caused by a low-iron diet, blood loss, or an inability to absorb iron. Symptoms include: fatigue; weak; cold hands and feet; headache; irregular heartbeat.

Shilajit supplements can gradually increase the amount of iron in the blood.


Reference more:
Pure Shilajit; NCBI; Heathline;  netmeds;

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Using Essential Oils for Heart Care


For most of us, and for men the pressure is very often taken by the heart. The figures are shocking. Forty percent of men who die in the forty-five to sixty-four age group do so as a result of a coronary. Sudden heart attack strikes down men from the age of twenty-two onwards with alarming regularity, and it’s thought that there are more than a million men in the forty to fifty-nine age group whose blood pressure is so high that it puts them at three times the risk of developing serious heart disease as those with low blood pressure. But when was the last time you had yours checked?

While some of the 160,000 people who die of heart disease in Britain each year could blame their tragic early demise on hereditary factors, the rest could probably have done a great deal to prevent their poor hearts from packing up so early.

According to recent government figures, fewer than half the medical records kept by general practitioners show recent blood pressure measurements. By comparison, 75 percent of Americans have their blood pressure checked every six months. But if you know that your blood a high risk pressure is taking you into category, you might heed the well-advertised warnings and stop smoking, eat more healthy food, and exercise more.

Slowing down is essential for those who already have a cardiac problem, and probably good advice for everyone, but who can afford to let up when the pressure to succeed is so great and the competition so formidable? Often it’s the man who appears to have everything under control who develops a problem with his heart and it comes as a great surprise to everyone. “He looked so healthy,” they say.

Essential Oils for Heart Care

As prevention is better than cure, we start with a formula that reduces stress, improves the circulation and nervous system, and also lowers high blood pressure:

  • Rosemary 1 drop
  • Hyssop 1 drop
  • Bergamot 1 drop

Use in a bath.
or In 1 teaspoon vegetable oil for self massage.

In recent research carried out by Edinburgh University it was found that men who have had heart attacks or suffer from angina have less essential fatty acids in their body than men with no heart trouble. This implies that it is the lack of vegetable oils, fish, and fresh green vegetables, rather than the overconsumption of saturated animal fats that causes the problems.

The two factors are of course related in that someone who uses butter regularly is unlikely to use polyunsaturated fats simply because he is already using one form of fat and none of us spreads our toast twice! Also, if you have meat, which includes animal fat, for a meal, that precludes you having fish. a It’s a question of choice, and in preventative heart care it seems to make more sense to go for fish and vegetables rather than steak and buttered baked potato. This research is, however, merely a refinement on the old advice: lower your cholesterol intake.

Those who already have a heart problem should

In addition to the above and following dietary tips. Try an essential oil treatment once a month. If this is not possible, adapt self-massage techniques (see also Basic Massage Techniques) once a week. And use essential oils in your bath at least twice a week. You may also want to consider heavy metal removal therapy, which provides high doses of vitamins E, C, A, and B-complex, plus other vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. To stimulate the production of antibodies that break down the dangerous plaque coating of the arteries.

In China, ginger has been known as a heart strengthener for thousands of years, and ginger oil happens to be one of the essential oils recommended for use in heart care.

Ginger Essential Oil

Choosing from the two lists below, use the oils singly or in combinations–to a total of 5 drops in a bath, or a total of 30 drops per 2 tablespoons vegetable oil for the massage. You can create marvelously sensual aromas for yourself that will also be doing you a great deal of good:


  • Geranium
  • Rosemary
  • Hyssop
  • Rose Bulgar
  • Black pepper
  • Cardamom
  • Rose Maroc
  • Egyptian rose
  • Ginger


  • Bergamot
  • Clary-sage
  • Cypress
  • Basil

Many of these oils smell spicy and masculine and are used in the most exclusive men’s aftershaves and toiletries, and finding an oil or combination that suits your aroma preference won’t be too difficult. Here is a formula you can try–ether in a bath or as a massage oil. It is precisely because of heart care considerations that massage is always done working towards the heart, and in this case concentrate on your shoulders, the back of your neck, and both sides of your arms.

This formula stimulates blood circulation and strengthens the nervous system while dispelling anxieties and helping you to relax:


  • Cardamom 2 drops
  • Geranium 1 drop
  • Clary-sage 2 drops
  • Bergamot 1 drop

Use in a bath
or In 2 teaspoons vegetable oil for a full body massage
or In 1 teaspoon vegetable oil for self massage

Wish you always healthy and happy in life.

  • The article is for reference only and to share experiences, not a substitute for medical diagnosis or treatment.
  • Sources: THE COMPLETE BOOK OF ESSENTIAL OILS & AROMATHERAPY – Valerie Ann Worwood & Essential Oil Natural Remedies – ALTHEA PRESS

Tham khảo thêm: Safe And Effective Use Of Essential Oil Pregnancy; Things To Know Before Use Essential Oils; Using Essential Oils For Flu

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Using Essential Oils For Sore Muscles, Muscle Tension

What You Can Do When Sore Muscles, Muscle Tension?

Sore muscles are bound to happen after a workout, but they don’t have to derail the rest of your day. If foam rolling and over-the-counter pain relievers aren’t doing the trick — or if you want something a little more natural — it may be time to consider essential oils.

Herbal Essential Oils

From eucalyptus to yarrow, there are a number of different oils that you can use to quickly ease muscle pain, tension, and swelling. Some of these tried and true options can tackle all three symptoms, while others are used for more targeted relief.

Read on to find out what you should be slipping into your gym bag or adding to your evening bath.

Use Essential oils for Sore Muscles, Tight, Swelling

Each of the following oils boast being able to treat pain, tension, and swelling — talk about a triple threat! For added relief, consider mixing two or three of these oils together to create a custom blend.

You can also try out different combinations to see which oils work best for you:

  • Peppermint essential oil. Peppermint contains menthol, which has a cooling effect on sore, achy muscles. It also has analgesic, antispasmodic, and anti-inflammatory properties.
  • Helichrysum oil. Helichrysum relieves muscle spasms, inflammation, and pain.
  • Marjoram oil. Marjoram relaxes muscle spasms and tension. It’s known for its ability to ease pain and inflammation.
Peppermint Essential Oil

Use these oils for pain and swelling

These oils pull double duty by easing muscle pain and swelling. You can use them separately or combine them to create your own blend:

  • Lavender essential oil. Lavender is prized for its ability to calm and relax. It also relieves pain and inflammation.
  • Eucalyptus essential oil. Eucalyptus has a cooling effect on muscles and reduces pain and inflammation.
  • Roman and German chamomile essential oils. Chamomile oils can help with pain and inflammation. They also help soothe muscle tension and reduce spasms.
  • Rosemary essential oil. Rosemary is noted for its ability to ease pain and inflammation.
  • Yarrow essential oil.Yarrow is used to reduce pain and inflammation.
Rosemary Essential Oil

Use these oils for tension and swelling

If you’re dealing with a mix of muscle tension and swelling, these oils may do the trick. You can use them individually or combine them to create a soothing blend of the oils:

  • Cypress oil. Cypress calms and relaxes muscles spasms and works to soothe inflammation.
  • Sandalwood oil. Sandalwood alleviates muscle spasms, tension, and inflammation

If you’re only dealing with one sympto

Although it’s great to have super oils on hand, you may not always need to treat multiple symptoms. Here’s what you can pick up to ease one symptom at a time — and create a custom blend once your cabinet is stocked!

For pain relief only

You can use one or more of these oils to relieve pain and discomfort:

  • Ginger essential oil. Ginger has a warming effect on sore muscles, which helps relieve pain.
  • Black pepper essential oil. Black pepper alleviates pain by warming up your body.
  • Clove essential oil. Clove is often used to treat pain. It also has a warming effect on sore muscles.

For tension relief only

Consider using one of these oils to soothe muscle spasms and tension:

  • Clary-sage essential oil. Clary sage alleviates muscle tension and spasms while promoting relaxation.
  • Juniper essential oil. Juniper eases tension and eliminates muscle spasms.

For swelling relief only

Try one of these oils if you want to focus on relieving inflammation, bruising, or swelling:

  • Arnica essential oil. Arnica relieves inflammation and swelling while soothing the skin. It’s often recommended for bruising.
  • Lemongrass essential oil. Lemongrass works quickly to reduce inflammation and swelling.

How to use essential oils for sore muscles

Essential oils are potent. If they aren’t used properly, they can irritate your skin and actually add to your swelling. Essential oils must be diluted with a carrier oil before application.

Although carrier oils absorb some of the essential oil’s potency, they don’t interfere with its therapeutic properties. They simply reduce your risk for irritation.

A general rule of thumb is to use at least 6 teaspoons of carrier oil for every 15 drops of essential oil. Carrier oils include coconut oil, olive oil, argan oil, and more.

Roll on before or after a workout

Remember the roll-on lip glosses that you used when you were younger? Essential oils are often packaged the same way! Roll-on bottles are a great way to carry diluted oils on the go and allow for mess-free application.

You can buy prepackaged roller ball bottles containing your oil or blend of choice online or at your local health store. You can also purchase empty roller bottles and fill them with your own diluted oils.

To mix your own oil:

  • Use a pipette or medicine dropper to add about 15 drops of your chosen essential oils.
  • Fill the rest of the bottle full of your chosen carrier oil.
  • Firmly press the roller ball top onto the bottle.
  • Roll the bottle between your hands for 30 seconds or so to ensure that the carrier and essential oils mix.
  • Apply as desired.

Use it for a massage

If topical application isn’t enough, consider using your oils to do a self-massage.

Not only can the oils penetrate deep below the skin to relieve pain, swelling, and tension, but massage can also help work out knots and quickly release tension. Just make sure you dilute your essential oils before application.

You can also book an aromatic massage from a certified therapist.

Add it to a relaxing bath

Bathing with essential oils is a lush and luxurious way to loosen up and soothe stiff muscles.

Simply add 10 to 12 drops of essential oil to an ounce of a carrier oil. Add that to the water flowing from your faucet and allow the water to disperse before getting into the tub.

You can also add to the ambiance by lighting a scented candle or listening to some calming music.

Add it to a cold or warm compress

Compresses are known to relieve pain, inflammation, and swelling. You can boost these effects by adding your chosen essential oil to the fabric.

To make an essential oil compress:

Fill your sink or a bowl with water. Cold water is typically used to soothe inflammation. Hot water is typically used to relieve pain.

  • Add the diluted essential oil to the water.
  • Submerge your towel until it’s completely wet with the mixture.
  • Gently wring out the excess water and apply the towel to the affected area.
  • Leave the towel on for about 15 minutes.
  • Reapply as needed throughout the day.
  • You can rewarm in the microwave. Take care to avoid burns.

Possible side effects and risks when Using Essential Oils For Sore Muscles, Muscle Tension, swelling

You should always dilute essential oils before topical use. This can reduce your risk of irritation and other side effects. You should also do a skin patch test before your first application to test for any potential allergic reactions.

To do this:

  • Apply a small amount of diluted essential oil to the inside of your forearm.
  • Cover the area with a bandage.
  • Wait 24 hours to see if any irritation occurs. If you don’t experience any itching, swelling, or other negative reaction, it should be safe to apply elsewhere.

Other things to keep in mind:

  • You shouldn’t use essential oils if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding. Consider who else is with you inhaling aromatherapy. Consider pets and children or those who are ill or have allergies.
  • You should never ingest essential oils orally. They should only be used topically or inhaled through a diffuser.

The bottom line when Using Essential Oils For Sore Muscles, Muscle Tension

Whether you’re using individual oils or a custom blend, it’s important to dilute your essential oils before use.

For topical application — like with a roller ball or as part of a massage — carrier oils are key.

The sky’s the limit in terms of how you can use and combine these incredible oils. You can start with what we’ve outlined here, but feel free to experiment!

Once you learn how the oils work, creating a blend may be as easy as knowing which clothes or perfume you prefer based on your mood.

Wish you always healthy and happy in life.

  • This article is for reference only and to share experiences, and is not a substitute for medical diagnosis or treatment.
  • And: THE COMPLETE BOOK OF ESSENTIAL OILS & AROMATHERAPY – Valerie Ann Worwood & Essential Oil Natural Remedies – ALTHEA PRESS

Please see more: Safe and Effective Use of Essential Oil Pregnancy; Things To Know Before Use Essential Oils; Using Essential Oils For Flu


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Using Essential Oils To Treat Sore Throat


Essential oils come from the leaves, bark, stems, and flowers of plants through steam or water distillation. They help to protect plants from predators, fungi, and bacteria. They also attract insects for pollination. In humans, essential oils may help kill germs, reduce inflammation, and speed up healing.

A sore throat is a painful condition that often makes it hard to swallow. It’s usually caused by either a viral infection, such as a cold or the flu, or a bacterial infection, such as strep throat.

Sore Throat Symptoms

There’s not a lot of research about the medical uses of essential oils. However, the studies that have been done suggest that essential oils may help with a sore throat.

It’s important to remember that essential oils are to be inhaled or diluted in oil and applied to the skin. When diluted in oil, essential oils can also be added to a bath. Ingestion of essential oils is not recommended, as some are toxic.

Some Essential Oils To Treat Sore Throat

1. Thyme essential oil

According to a 2011 study, thyme essential oil has powerful antibacterial abilities against common antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. Thyme also reduces muscle spasms, so it may prevent coughing, which sometimes causes a sore throat.

Thyme essential oil

2. Lavender essential oil

Lavender is known for its relaxing effect. A 2005 study found that lavender essential oil may also have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. These results are promising, but more studies are needed to confirm them.

Lavender essential oil

3. Tea tree essential oil

According to a 2013 study, tea tree oil has powerful antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects against germs. It’s often used as an antiseptic for gum infections and other oral problems.

4. Cinnamon, wild carrot, eucalyptus, and rosemary essential oil blend

Sometimes an essential oil blend is more effective than a single oil. According to a 2017 study, a blend of cinnamon, wild carrot, eucalyptus, and rosemary essential oils has both antibacterial and antiviral properties. Researchers believe this blend could be a powerful treatment for both the flu and bacterial pneumonia, a common result of the flu.

Cinnamon Essential Oil

5. Eucalyptus essential oil

Eucalyptus is often used as an antiseptic to treat colds, sore throats, and coughs. A 2011 study compared the antibacterial properties of different types of eucalyptus oil. Oils made from different parts of the plant had different chemical makeups.

Eucalyptus essential oil

Researchers found that all eucalyptus essential oils were antibacterial to some degree. Oil from eucalyptus fruit had the most antibacterial activity, even against some drug-resistant bacteria.

6.Lemon essential oil

A 2017 study found that lemon essential oil had strong antibacterial effects against the bacteria that cause listeria. This means it may also be effective against other types of bacteria that cause sore throats, but more research is needed to confirm this.

Lemon essential oil

Citrus essential oils make your skin sun sensitive. Avoid the sun if you are using these diluted products on your skin.

7. Peppermint essential oil

Peppermint contains menthol, the main ingredient used in many throat lozenges and cough drops used to treat sore throats. A 2015 study found that peppermint essential oil had antibacterial properties similar to those of the antibiotic gentamicin (Garamycin). Inhaling peppermint oil may also help reduce inflammation and relieve pain.

Peppermint Essential Oil

8. Ginger essential oil

Ginger is best known for its soothing effect on the stomach, but it’s also a natural remedy for the common cold. According to Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects 2nd Edition, ginger has anti-inflammatory abilities that may help relieve throat pain.

9. Garlic essential oil

Garlic oil contains allicin, a compound with antiviral and antifungal properties. It may be especially helpful in treating sore throats caused by a virus. According to a 2014 study, garlic has antibacterial abilities against many types of bacteria.

How to use essential oils To Treat Sore Throat

The first step in using essential oils is choosing the right oil. Essential oils aren’t regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, making it hard to know what’s actually in them. When choosing essential oils, look for organic oils made by a company that’s part of the National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy. The label should include the botanical information, country of origin, and distillation and expiration dates.

Once you’ve chosen an essential oil, there are several ways to use it for a sore throat:

  • Steam inhalation: Add up to 7 drops of essential oil to 2 cups of boiling water; cover your head with a towel, and inhale the steam through your nose. Keep your eyes closed to prevent eye irritation.
  • Direct inhalation: Add 2 or 3 drops of essential oil to a cotton ball; breathe deeply. You can also place the cotton ball next to your pillow as you sleep.
  • Diffusion: Add several drops of essential oil to a room diffuser. The diffused oil will help disinfect the air.
  • Topical application: Add up to 10 drops of essential oil to 2 tablespoons carrier oil, such as coconut or jojoba oil; apply it to the skin of your throat.
Suggest Solutions

Do not ingest essential oils. Do not put them on your skin without diluting them first.


Essential oils are natural, but that doesn’t mean they can’t be dangerous. Ingesting even a small amount of eucalyptus oil, for example, may cause seizures, according to The National Capital Poison Center.

Essential oils may also cause an allergic reaction. Get immediate medical help if you experience any of the following while using essential oils:

  • trouble breathing
  • itching
  • rash
  • rapid heart rate

Essential oils are more carefully considered if you’re pregnant or breastfeeding, since not enough research has been done to determine if they’re safe. Some are known to cause problems.

Before using essential oils on babies and children, make sure you talk to a doctor or certified aromatherapist first. Many essential oils aren’t safe for children. A 2007 study, for example, showed that peppermint oil may cause breathing problems in children and jaundice in babies.

The bottom line

Essential oils are an alternative remedy for sore throat. Studies have shown that many essential oils have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties. Still, more research is needed to determine how effective they are. In the meantime, drinking a cup of warm peppermint or ginger tea with lemon and honey may be a safer way to enjoy the benefits of these plants.

Most sore throats will go away on their own. If your sore throat persists or you have a high fever, see your health care practitioner.

Essential oils come from the leaves, bark, stems, and flowers of plants through steam or water distillation. They help to protect plants from predators, fungi, and bacteria. They also attract insects for pollination. In humans, essential oils may help kill germs, reduce inflammation, and speed up healing.

A sore throat is a painful condition that often makes it hard to swallow. It’s usually caused by either a viral infection, such as a cold or the flu, or a bacterial infection, such as strep throat.

There’s not a lot of research about the medical uses of essential oils. However, the studies that have been done suggest that essential oils may help with a sore throat.

It’s important to remember that essential oils are to be inhaled or diluted in oil and applied to the skin. When diluted in oil, essential oils can also be added to a bath. Ingestion of essential oils is not recommended, as some are toxic.

Wish you always healthy and happy in life.

  • The article is only for reference and sharing of experiences, not a substitute for medical diagnosis or treatment.
  • And: THE COMPLETE BOOK OF ESSENTIAL OILS & AROMATHERAPY – Valerie Ann Worwood & Essential Oil Natural Remedies – ALTHEA PRESS

Please see more: Safe And Effective Use Of Essential Oil Pregnancy; Things To Know Before Use Essential Oils; Using Essential Oils For Flu


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Using Essential Oils For Flu

Overview about Using Essential Oils For Flu

In most cases, having the flu means increasing self-care as you wait for the infection to run its course. One effective method of self-care is using essential oils as a topical rub or for aromatherapy. These strongly scented oils can help alleviate your flu symptoms, especially by clearing your nasal passage and reducing headaches. Some oils may even have antiviral benefits to help treat infections and reduce fever. Keep reading to learn how to use these oils and which ones to use for the flu.

How to use essential oils for flu

Inhalation is the most beneficial way to use essential oils for a flu. You can inhale essential oils by sniffing the bottle directly or adding a few drops of oil to a cotton ball or handkerchief. This method helps clear your nasal passages so you can breathe better. The oils may also help you sleep better and destress.

You can also add a few drops essential oils to:

  • a diffuser, to clean the air
  • dilute in a carrier oil and add to steamy bathwater
  • a carrier oil, for massaging the head, neck, or feet
  • a large bowl of hot water, for steam inhalation
  • hot or cold compresses

Benefits Using Essential Oils For Flu

Benefits depend on the application and type of oil. For example, the menthol and cooling effects of peppermint oil may work better in a chest rub than in a diffuser. With topical applications, be sure to dilute the oil before applying it to your skin. You can use an ounce of carrier oil, such as coconut oil, for every few drops of essential oil.

Essential Oils Benefits
Lemon Essential Oil clears your nasal passages and allows for steady breathing
Lavander Essential Oil relieves stress, fatigue, depression, and headaches
Peppermint Essential Oil reduces coughs, sinusitis, and throat infections
Thyme Essential Oil has antibacterial activity to help fight respiratory infections
Eucalyptus Essential Oil reduces fevers and fights viruses
Tea tree Esseantial Oil inhibits bacteria and fights infections
Chamomile Essential Oil relieves cold and flu symptoms
Clove (eugenol) Essential Oil has antiviral and antifungal properties to clean surfaces or air
Cinnamon Essential Oil can clean surfaces or air
Rosemary Essential Oil lis a nontoxic way to clean surfaces or air
Chamomile Essential Oil

Risks and warnings of using essential oils

Potency: Essential oils are extremely potent. Avoid taking essential oils by mouth. You also shouldn’t use a concentrated amount. If you don’t dilute the oils, they may irritate the skin, eyes, and lungs. You can dilute essential oils with carrier oils such as coconut oil, avocado oil, castor oil, or others. Dilute a few drops of essential oil with an ounce of carrier oil. Depending on the essential oil, the ratio can vary. Do a patch test on the inside of your forearm to check for any skin sensitivities.

Quality: Be sure to buy your essential oils from a reputable source. They should ships your oils in glass bottles. Plastic bottles increase the risk of contamination and decrease the shelf life the oil.

Pregnancy: Talk to your doctor if you have any concerns about essential oil use. If you’re pregnant or breastfeeding, you may want to avoid using essential oils. There’s not enough research about the safety of essential oils for children or pregnant women. It may be toxic in large doses.

What the research says

There is limited research on essential oils and the flu, especially in humans. Some studies show that essential oil have properties that can fight viruses, alleviate flu symptoms, and increase comfort during the illness.

A 2010 study looked at a commercial essential oil blend of clove, wild orange, and cinnamon. Its application reduced in vitro viral particles by 90 percent. The oil blend also decreased infection.

A 2014 review of essential oils recognized the health benefits of essential oils. They also noted antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and other properties that may have applications for human medicine.

Other treatment options

While essential oils can help fight the flu and decrease your symptoms, you shouldn’t rely on them as your only treatment. Over-the-counter medications work better and may even decrease your recovery time. Most of these medications have side effects such as drowsiness or alertness, but you can try:

  • decongestants, which should only be used for a few days to avoid any rebound symptoms
  • antihistamines, which block typical flu symptoms such as sneezing, itching, and runny nose
  • acetaminophen, which relieves fever and other pain associated with the flu
  • throat lozenges, which you can suck on to relieve a scratchy throat

Limit what medications you take to avoid overloading your system. Seek medical attention if you have symptoms for longer than three days or if they are getting worse.

What you can do now

Learn the symptoms of the flu so you know when to start your essential oil treatment. You can begin using essential oils immediately when you feel flu symptoms coming on. Add a few drops to your bath, diffuse them into the air, or mix them with a carrier oil for a rub.

Cinnamon benefits

You can find essential oils online or at a health store. Keeping a few basic oils around, such as tea tree, peppermint, and lavender, can be helpful, even if you’re not sick. They can also help with stress or pain.

To prevent yourself from getting the flu, keep your immune system strong by eating a healthy diet and getting your annual flu vaccination.

Wish you always healthy and happy in life.

  • The article is only for reference and sharing of experiences, not a substitute for medical diagnosis or treatment.
  • And : THE COMPLETE BOOK OF ESSENTIAL OILS & AROMATHERAPY – Valerie Ann Worwood & Essential Oil Natural Remedies – ALTHEA PRESS

Tham khảo thêm: Safe And Effective Use Of Essential Oil Pregnancy; How To Use Base Oil, Carrier Oil; Things To Know Before Use Essential Oils

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Using Essential Oils For Teenage

The Teenage Years

As well as peer pressure and the awakening of sexual awareness, prepubescent children have to contend with bodily changes, school exams, and the parting from lifelong friends as they begin a new school elsewhere. They are no longer top dogs at elementary school but the new boy or girl in a place where they must learn to cope with an increasingly competitive atmosphere.

The Teenage

Unlike adults who only have to compete in one area–the one for which they have already shown an aptitude and which is their profession–the young adult at school is under pressure to succeed in many diverse areas.

Meanwhile, the teenager’s body is going through profound changes. This transition also brings its particular problems. Boys sometimes suffer from gynecomastia, when the breasts swell as the male and female sex hormones adjust and find their new balance. This usually clears up by itself in time but any accompanying pain can meanwhile be eased by a rub of 15 drops of lavender in 2 tablespoons vegetable oil.

Other problems of puberty for:

  • Boys can be swollen scrotum, involuntary erection, and emission of semen.
  • Girls may suffer from irregular or painful periods and premenstrual syndrome.

Skin Problems

Skin disorders are common in teenagers and can be most distressing. They are caused by the increase in sex hormones which in turn cause an increase in sebum production of the sebaceous glands. As the outer epidermis becomes thicker the pores have a tendency to dilate and if they become blocked by dead skin cells, sebum can become blocked and infected by the bacteria that live on all human skin.

Skin Problems of teenage

Cleansing the skin to clear away the dead skin cells is crucial to avoid skin breakouts, especially during the hormonally active teens. Here then is facial scrub which is equally good for those with or trying to avoid skin problems, and which will not damage the skin:


  • Ground almonds 2 tablespoons
  • Raw egg white 1 teaspoon
  • Lemon essential oil 4 drops

Mix the ingredients together well, put a small amount into the palm of your hand and apply to a previously wetted face. Rub the mixture all over the face in a rolling movement; wash with a good allergenic soap; rinse off with plenty of water.

Now, dab the face with a lavender splash made by adding 5 drops of lavender essential oil to 2 tablespoons of spring water. Shake the bottle before each use and just dab the liquid over the face and leave it. Repeat this treatment each day.

The Essential Teenage Facial Scrub

Acne sufferers have been shown to have markedly lower zinc levels in their bodies than non sufferers and it would seem only sensible to increase your zinc level, by diet or supplements. Other skin treatments you can refer to Facial Skin Care With Herbal Essential Oils; Uses Essential Oil For Problem Skin. As can shampoos which will alleviate the problem of greasy hair which is also caused by overproduction of sebum.

School can be as stressful to a teenage as the office is to an adult and the essential oils are just as useful in alleviating this. So run a bath for your child and give her a favorite comic and send her off to the bathroom with instructions to take it easy for half an hour. It is best to do this after you have spent some time lending an ear to any problems she may have so they are off the chest. Use 4 drops of one of the following oils:


  • Chamomile Roman
  • Nutmeg
  • Marjoram
  • Geranium
  • Lemon
  • Lavender
  • Bergamot

Or follow one of these formulas which are designed to help your child cope with classroom stress:

  • Bergamot 2 drops
  • Lavender 2 drops
  • Marjoram 2 drops
  • Lemon 2 drops

Enough for 2 baths

  • Geranium 3 drops
  • Mandarin 3 drops
  • Clary-sage 3 drops

Enough for 3 baths

Once again, lavender provides a solution to the problem. Add 2 drops only to the bath (more will act as a stimulant rather than relaxant); afterwards give the child a big mug of something warm, and a foot rub. No child can remain upright after that!

Teenagers need to touch “home base” as much as anyone else does, despite the fact that they are forever extending their sights outward–or perhaps more so because of that. Touch is extremely important for everyone, but parents tend to touch their children less as they grow older and some children will have years during which nobody touches them closely at all.

Cuddles may seem childish to a teenager and so massage, which is very grown up, is a good way to get in touch with your child, literally and figuratively. You can massage the hands or feet as well as the shoulders, back, or legs or, indeed, the whole body. The following are particularly good for this purpose:


Drug Abuse

Unfortunately drugs feature prominently; in modern life and we cannot expect our children never to come into contact with them. Some will inevitably be sucked into the negative vortex created by “heavy” the drugs, and aromatherapists, like practitioners in all fields of complementary medicine, have been asked for help by many desperate parents.

Withdrawal from heroin, cocaine, or speed-type drugs is never easy and the essential oils cannot offer a magical panacea. Someone who has gone down this road can only expect a period of difficult emotional and physical transition back to normality. However, the essential oils can help the process in two ways:

  • As a general strengthening to both the emotional and physical system as the addict tries to withstand the pull of the drug.
  • And in specific treatments of the many side effects of withdrawal.

These include insomnia, acute anxiety, night sweats, palpitations, nausea, cramps, headaches, loss of appetite, and trembling. The following essential oils are very useful in baths and massage oils and can give addicts tremendous help as they struggle to overcome their problem:


  • Rose
  • Grapefruit
  • Sandalwood
  • Marjoram
  • Fennel
  • Bergamot
  • Birch
  • Basil
  • Parsley
  • Eucalyptus peppermint
  • Nutmeg
  • Lavender
  • Chamomile Roman
  • Eucalyptus lemon
  • Orange
  • Valerian

Wish you always healthy and happy in life.

  • This article is for reference only and to share experiences, and is not a substitute for medical diagnosis or treatment.
  • Source: THE COMPLETE BOOK OF ESSENTIAL OILS & AROMATHERAPY – Valerie Ann Worwood & Essential Oil Natural Remedies – ALTHEA PRESS

Please see more: Using Essential Oils For Nail Care; Body Packs And Scrubs

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Using Essential Oils for Feet Care


Feet are often the most neglected area of the body, particularly when it comes to beauty care. And yet our feet are our most faithful friends, plodding on day after day carrying our weight, constantly under pressure, running for buses, walking up and over the dales, and generally making our active lives possible. It is only when they begin to hurt that we look down and notice them.

Feet are very undemanding when you think of all they have to do, and they are modest too. You wouldn’t think it to look at them, but they actually contain 72,000 nerve endings–which is why a foot massage makes the entire body feel so wonderfully relaxed.

If we do something even as simple as paddling in the sea or putting our feet in a bowl of warm water, the results are more rewarding than we might expect. Feet also act as the electrical interface between us and the earth, and it is through them that we are able to discharge and “ground” the static that builds up within us.

You know how pent-up you feel after a week of walking on concrete and how marvelous it feels to throw off the shoes at the weekend and walk on the grass. This affords an actual electrical release, an “earthing” which gives us a relief that seems out of proportion to the act itself.

Some people think that feet are ugly, and when you consider how neglected and put upon they are, who is surprised? Silently they suffer as we squeeze them into ill-fitting shoes, until one day they just can’t take any more and they develop a problem. Then they cry for help.

But why wait until then? They deserve more, and the essential oils provide a fabulous and effective way to give them a treat. Even if we have let things go too far, the oils can do much to right the balance.

Hard skin that is allowed to build up on the feet can cause pain later on in life and should be tackled as soon as it starts to appear–or, better still, prevent it from appearing at all. Pumice stone, a natural volcanic rock, is a wonder for smoothing away hard skin and preventing buildup.

Hard Skin Preventativ

  • Base oil 1 teaspoon
  • Salt 1 teaspoon
  • Calendula (or tagetes) 5 drops

Rub the pumice stone all over the foot, paying particular attention to the sides of the feet, the ball, and heel. This is easier to do after a bath. Then rub salt all over the foot, massaging it in well. Finally, massage with the essential oil blended in the base oil–again, rubbing it in well. If you already have a heavy buildup of dead skin get a chiropodist to slough it off for you and then follow the treatment above.

Feet benefit from the following essential oils:

  • Peppermint: refreshing–great before a party or after a long day out shopping.
  • Calendula or Tagetes: good for hard skin and corn.
  • Lavender, chamomile, fennel: a great help to tired, swollen feet; use them alone or mix in equal parts.
  • Geranium: strengthens the skin and improves elasticity; helps prevent blistering and improves circulation in the feet.

All feet will benefit from a soak in a bowl of warm water in which a dozen or so small, round pebbles have been placed, along with a tablespoon of salt and 4 drops of your favorite essential oils.

You can inhale the gorgeous aroma while you sensuously rub the soles of your feet back and forth over the pebbles. Do it slowly–and enjoy it. After dabbing dry, massage the following oil well into the whole of the foot, time to massage the taking toes:


  • Palmarosa 6 drops
  • Lemon 4 drops
  • Thyme linalol 3 drops
  • Benzoin 2 drops

Blend together in these proportions and use 5 drops in 1 teaspoon jojoba oil. A few special treatments are all you will need to get your neglected feet back into shape.

Feet Care

Wish you always healthy and happy in life.

  • This article is for reference only and to share experiences, and is not a substitute for medical diagnosis or treatment.
  • Source: THE COMPLETE BOOK OF ESSENTIAL OILS & AROMATHERAPY – Valerie Ann Worwood & Essential Oil Natural Remedies – ALTHEA PRESS

Please see more: Using Essential Oils For Nail Care; Body Packs And Scrubs